600 BCE - 600 CE Second-Wave Civilizations

This period lays the foundation for much of civilization as we know it today. The classical Greeks lay the cultural foundation for Western civilization. The Achaemenid Persians under Cyrus unify much of the Middle East and Egypt. Alexander the Great unifies Greece with Persia. Later, the Roman Empire dominates the Mediterranean and Europe.

This tutorial attempts to give a very high level view of the civilizations that emerge in the period around 600 BCE.

Greece fights off the Persians and enters its Golden Era, only to breakdown into the Peloponnesian war and eventual conquest by the Macedonians.

An overview of the ancient Persian empire, with focus on the Achaemenid Empire started by Cyrus the Great and ended by Alexander the Great.

Starting as a small kingdom city-state on the Italian peninsula before the 8th century BCE, Rome grows first into a republic that dominates the Mediterranean and Europe and lays the foundation for Western Civilization.

A survey of the Roman Empire from Augustus and Pax Romana to the fall of the Western Roman Empire 500 years later.

Christianity starts as a Jewish sect on the periphery of the Roman Empire. Despite being actively persecuted, the religion grows through the Empire, eventually becoming the official state religion.