This period lays the foundation for much of civilization as we know it today. The classical Greeks lay the cultural foundation for Western civilization. The Achaemenid Persians under Cyrus unify much of the Middle East and Egypt. Alexander the Great unifies Greece with Persia. Later, the Roman Empire dominates the Mediterranean and Europe.
Starting as a small kingdom city-state on the Italian peninsula before the 8th century BCE, Rome grows first into a republic that dominates the Mediterranean and Europe and lays the foundation for Western Civilization.