The Greek polis
- Greek city-states developed different forms of governance with very different political structures and strengths.
- Greek colonization led to the spread of the Greek language and Greek culture, but it also resulted in tensions with the neighboring Persian empire, culminating in the Persian Wars.
- Athens developed democratic institutions and a culture of philosophy, science, and culture; it emerged as a powerful state and allied with other city-states, forming the Delian League.
- Resistance to Athens’ power among the other Greek city-states, particularly Sparta, prompted the Peloponnesian War.