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Current time:0:00Total duration:10:10

Video transcript

in other videos we've already talked about how classical Greece has had an immeasurable impact not just on Western civilization but on civilization as a whole in order to understand the period that we call classical Greece it's valuable to place it in context on a timeline so I have significant conflicts or events that happened to the Greek world on this timeline especially in the fifth and fourth centuries BCE in the beginning of the fifth century BCE you have the greco-persian Wars where the Greek city-states are able to fend off attack from the great Persian Empire and then they go on the offensive but as we exit the fifth century BCE the city-states start fighting amongst themselves you have Athens leading the Delian League in a fight against Sparta and their allies which significantly weakens the city-state it ends with Athens losing but all of the city-states have been weakened and it leaves them open to be conquered by the Macedonians in particular Philip of Macedonia and then his son Alexander the Great is able to not just keep control of Greece of the city states but conquer Egypt and Persia and get all the way to modern-day of Ghana ston and Pakistan but after his death you then have his successors and Greece falls under the an ticketed dynasty but eventually as we get into the second and first century BCE it goes under Roman control and we've talked about this Classical period all of the various contributions we've talked about the contributions in philosophy from people like Socrates and Socrates student Plato and Plato's student Aristotle but there are also significant contributions in mathematics you have Pythagoras who actually predates these philosophers and he's most famous especially to many of us for his Pythagorean theorem and a lot of mathematics and the foundations of a lot of geometry but he his followers they were actually creating something of a mysticism of a religion around mathematics and even a philosophy that would later influence some of the other philosophers that we talked about especially this idea of ideal platonic forms you can imagine if you're studying perfect right triangles there's no such thing as a perfect right triangle in the universe these are ideas that we use in geometry and other things in the universe are really just approximations of these but to appreciate the philosophical side of Pythagoras here are some quotes from him or quotes ascribed to him there is geometry in the humming of the strings there is music in the spacing of the spheres reason is immortal all else mortal and you'll see even in the sixth century BCE this thread of Greek thinking putting reason at a very high level not just trying to explain everything with pure mysticism although Pythagoras definitely was and Pythagorean ISM was definitely about mysticism but it was mysticism but at the core had mathematics and geometry but continuing on with significant mathematical contributions from ancient Greece we have Euclid we don't know all of the exact details of his birth and his death but he is the father of modern geometry and as you can see on this map here he didn't live in what we call Greece proper today he lived in Alexandria a city established by Alexander the Great and this is during the Hellenistic period where all of the territory that had or most of the territory that had been conquered by Alexander the Great was still ruled by his successors Egypt was ruled by Ptolemy establishing the Ptolemaic dynasty in the time of Euclid and Euclid lived in that great center of learning in the arts Alexandria which even exists today and he is most famous for his elements this is a much later printing of is elements of Euclid's element but you would be amazed how much of modern geometry has been described by Euclid even your geometry textbook can trace it back directly to Euclid's elements Abraham Lincoln famously learned every proof in Euclid's element in order to find to his mind so you can really view Euclid as the father of geometry but that's not all there are many other contributors in philosophy in math and this is just once again a sample of all the folks who contributed on the side of philosophy you have Zenith on who is another one of Socrates students in addition to Plato and in fact the life of Socrates we learn from the writings of Plato and Xenophon the ofon was also a historian who gave us some accounts of the later Peloponnesian War you have the famous cynics and ticinese and his student Diogenes Diogenes famous for living in a barrel in Athens and somewhat insulting Alexander the great but the cynics which the word is derived from being dog like these are people who were philosophers who gave up the trappings of materialism and caring frankly what other people thought as we go a little bit out of our time line right over here you have Archimedes one of the greatest mathematicians and scientists of all time but you also have contributions in the arts some of the most famous playwrights of the ancient time Aeschylus Sophocles Euripides Aristophanes we might remember as being a bit of a thorn on the side of Socrates he wrote about Socrates but there's more of a parody you have contributions in medicine the famous Hippocrates the Hippocratic oath still has an influence on modern medicine you have some of the earliest what we could say historians that we know of Herodotus famously giving us the accounts we have of the greco-persian Wars a lot of what we even know about the ancient Persian Empire you have few cities who gives us accounts of the Peloponnesian War along with Zenith on and so when you see this density of arts sciences learning in one place a lot of this was centered in Athens it makes you wonder what was going on at that time and historians do call the period from when the Athenians were able to fend off the Persians all the way until the end of the Peloponnesian War as the Golden Age of Athens and for good reason look at this flourishing of the Arts and the sciences that developed during that period you might wonder what was happening in terms of government and government of this period might be one of the longest lasting influences as we exit the sixth century BCE and 507 you have Greek democracy taking root in Athens and in fact the word democracy is a Greek word government by the people and shortly after that during the Golden Age of Athens you start having leadership by Pericles he was an orator he was a statesman he was a general in this period right over here then I have an orange often known as the age of Pericles he helped Athens invest significantly in the arts and in architecture some of the most iconic structures we now associate with Greece or ancient Greece were built during his time they were promoted by him here you have a picture of the Acropolis which is this rock outcropping which still exists in Athens as it likely looked during the time of Pericles during the Golden Age of Athens and you can see here in particular the most famous structure the Parthenon well a lot of which still stands today was constructed under the rule of Pericles as I mentioned the Greek city-states get conquered by the Macedonians but after the death of Alexander degree falls under the control of the Antigone dynasty but eventually as we get into the second century BCE off of this timeline it comes under Roman control becomes part of the Roman Empire but the roman empire is itself significantly influenced by Greek culture Greek mathematics Greek architecture Greek philosophy and in a lot of ways the Romans end up becoming the caretakers of much of this culture that we talk about in this video and once you have the decline of the Roman Empire especially the Western Roman Empire and Europe enters into the Middle Ages you have the Islamic world that acts as a bit of a bridge of this Greek culture into the European Renaissance and eventually the Enlightenment and so we can trace even our modern views of science and philosophy all the way back to these Greeks and so I'll leave you with this quote from the Roman poet Horace who wrote this around the 1st century BCE captive Greece took captive her fierce Conqueror and instilled her arts in rustic Latium or elation and so what he's saying is even though Rome had conquered Greece Greece's culture took captive her Conqueror took captive the Roman culture instilled Greece's Arts in the rustic Latin world