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Current time:0:00Total duration:8:19

Video transcript

as we've already seen the fifth century BCE starts off with Athens and Sparta and various Greek city-states fighting on the same side against against the Persian invaders but as we saw in the last video as soon as the person as soon as the Persians are dealt with tension start to rise between Athens and Sparta and their various allies Sparta gets worried that the Athenian Navy is looking maybe a little bit too strong they were decisively important in the second Persian invasion and they build this Delian League which whose purpose is to go on the offensive against the Persians but more and more so it was starting to look like an Athenian Empire and a lot of this you can imagine it's like a game of risk the more you take over the more resources you have the more that you can build more ships and have more soldiers so that you can take on even more so as sparta and athens are starting to become more and more more and more rivals as far as getting insecure about athens influence and their resources and their military power and we even saw it in the last video you have an earthquake in sparta potentially right around the same time that sparta was planning an invasion of athens leaving the spartans vulnerable there's a hell out uprising these the Spartan slaves the Athenians send hoplites to apparently helped the Spartans but the Spartans are suspicious of it and they send them back and then it it culminates with the the skirmish you have between Megara and Corinth which were historically to Spartan allies but Athens decides to take sides gets an alliance with Megara and that's that's one thing too many for the Spartans and so they declare war and you have what's called the first Peloponnesian War but that's not the Peloponnesian War that's the first time that you start having very open conflict between the Spartans and the Athenians and these conflicts lasts for on the order of about 15 years and they're ended with what's called the peace of thirty years but as we will see this piece of thirty years only lasts only lasts about 15 years and the whole time tensions continue to arise the Delian League or you could call it the Athenian power the Athenian Empire I should say is getting more and more powerful the Athenian Navy is getting more and more powerful and once again things culminate and now this is the beginning of the actual Peloponnesian War the thing that people are referring to when they talk about the Peloponnesian War in 431 BCE the king of Sparta is is is convinced or is I guess you could say he is he is influenced to even though he himself was somewhat skeptical of the idea he decides to invade Attica Attica is something you'll hear a lot about it is this region right over here this little out jutting of land that Athens is on and this first phase of the Peloponnesian War is called the arc adamian war named for the king of Sparta who's somewhat reluctantly reluctantly gets convinced it's decides to invade Attica and so that's stage one arc adamian arca Dameon war and the arc adamian war it's it's essential ingredients are you have sparta with its dominant army going and having repeated attacks on to Attica and the Athenians with their dominant Navy going and having raids throughout the Peloponnese and along the Aegean coast so here you have the Athenians go and we do the Athenians and the Spartans in two different colors actually so here you go let's do the Spartans in this red color attacking Attica with their army and now let's have the Athenians with this light blue color coming here and attacking various points various points on the Peloponnese and in the aegean further extending their influence now that first phase ends and it goes on for quite a bit it goes on for about 10 years ends with the Peace of Nicias or nicee yes but as you'll see and I was actually intended to be a 50-year piece let's see it doesn't last long at all and the skirmishes continue and in 415 the athenians say hey we want to extend our power remember it's like this game of Risk the more city-states you take over the more citizens that you're able to tax the more soldiers you will have the more wealth you will have the more shipbuilding capability you will have so the Athenians get this great idea to sail all the way to Syracuse and just to be clear where Syracuse is Syracuse right over here on the coast of Sicily and this is a long distance in this ancient world today to get this idea to sail all the way to Syracuse to try to take it over for it and essentially to extend their empire so this right over here is in 415 this long voyage to take over Syracuse and it is disastrous the fleet that tries to go is able to be destroyed and they get the the folks in Syracuse are able to get the assistance of the Spartans and so that Greek fleet is destroyed and this is often viewed as the second phase of the Peloponnesian War and so this is the attack at Syracuse attack at Syracuse the failed attempt of the Athenians that to get Syracuse to get Syracuse and this is a two-year period of time because once again this is no joke to send your Navy and to try to get at Syracuse and then that takes us into the third phase the third phase of the Peloponnesian War let me scroll this over a little bit the third phase is often called the Ionian war Ionian whoa Ionian Ionian or Ionia is this region that's now on wood now in modern-day off the coast of modern-day Turkey you have many of the city-states that were part of this Athenian Empire they're starting to revolt you could imagine that the Spartans are trying to help those revolts because they're trying to get the Athenians wherever they are this is often also called the dessaline or decalin dessaline war that's the celeea or Dhekelia i'm probably not pronouncing well it's a little village right over here at the top of Attica and it was a strategic location that went over to the Spartans and that's where the Decca lien war gets its name but over the course of this third phase the Spartans get help from the Persians remember this was their enemy they had you know the Spartans and Athenians had unified against the Persians but some time is passed we're now 70 or 80 years later and this part and say hey we want to win this thing decisively they get the help of the Persians and finally in 405 BCE there's a decisive naval naval battle at a goes both Bo Tommy and I'm sorry to all of you Greeks out there that might be listening I know my pronunciation is not perfect or close to perfect but this is a decisive victory right over here for the Spartans they are able to destroy the Athenian Navy and that causes that's the decisive victory and then in 404 this is 405 and 404 the Athenians surrender and the famous Peloponnesian War is over the Spartans are victorious but it's not a great victory because as you can imagine you have towns that have been destroyed large parts of Greece have been weakened and it leaves the the whole area open to attack from others and as we will see in the next century in the fourth century we have Philip of Macedon or Makka dawn depending on how you want to pronounce it who's able to use that vulnerable and the Macedonians are the makedonia --nz they are related to the Greek people but he's able to use that vulnerability that happens over the course of the fifth century to attack the city states of Greece but he actually is able to unify them