If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website.

If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked.

Main content
Current time:0:00Total duration:8:28

Video transcript

let's now continue with our super fast journey through history and one thing I want to point out because I already touched on it in the previous video is while we talk about this ancient history I'm also referring to some stories from the Old Testament so let's call that religion now the reason why I'm doing it is because the religion is such a big part of our of our modern culture it's clearly especially the Old Testament is the basis of three major world religions today and so it can help us hopefully create a little bit more of a narrative in our head on some of these ancient events because a lot of these events described in the Old Testament have a historical context there was a Babylon there was a neo-babylonian empire well hear and talk about Nebuchadnezzar in this video there was there were pharaohs these things are described in the Old Testament now there's other things in the Old Testament that have less of a historical context where we really don't have evidence yet of did they happen or did they happen in the way that is described in the Old Testament we might be able to find that evidence over time and then there's clearly a lot of events that are not described in the Old Testament but we are able to find evidence we're able to find documents writing hieroglyphs we're able to find artifacts and date those artifacts we're able to find ruins and the fun of history is to try to figure out well what do we know and what do we not know and can we construct narratives that make sense and over time whether we're talking about events that are referred to in the Old Testament or things where there's a large historical basis for it as we understand more these dots might change a little bit or at least our understanding of how they occurred or the causality so that's that's one of the really fun things industry and I encourage you everything that you hear me say don't take it for granted look it up yourself and come to your own conclusions so with that said let's continue and I'll review a little bit from the previous video we're in 1700 BC is the time of Hammurabi you have the Code of Hammurabi famous famous as a written code written code of laws now we believe if you the stories of Abraham because there are parallels between the Old Testament and the Code of Hammurabi it is often placed Abraham as a as a biblical figure is often placed in or shortly after the time of Hammurabi and so it's Abraham of or and this migration to Canon which would eventually become the kingdom of Judea and Israel modern day where the states of Israel and Palestine are that migration people place it at around 1200 or sre around 1700 BCE once again roughly in the time of Hammurabi now we don't know this there is not a lot of historical evidence here but it fits kind of the historical context especially with the especially with the code with the Code of Hammurabi now we fast forward a few hundred years and now we're firmly on the side of religion where these are stories from the Old Testament we haven't found a lot of historical evidence yet of the migration from of the Jewish people to Egypt the famous story of Joseph so that's the migration which is placed tends to be placed around 1500 BCE 1500 BCE and once again I'm going to put a question mark here and so when we look at the our timeline this is Abraham going from Mesopotamia and then to what is now or to establish this tribe and what eventually becomes Judea Israel they're there for several hundred years you have the story of Joseph Abraham's grandson he becomes a vizier of the Pharaoh his family eventually joins him but then the Jewish people get enslaved according to the Old Testament for several hundred years until they are freed in the books of book of Exodus by Moses and they are led back to Judea and so this part right over here we are definitely let me Circle down a color you can see this part right over here we're definitely operating outside of a lot of historical evidence but we believe but that that the the Exodus from Egypt back to Judea this is often placed around 1200 BCE so I know my map is getting a little bit a little bit 1200 BCE and once again I'm going to put a question mark there because we don't really know but that's where we believe that the set was essentially the tribe of Jewish people it's now established as a real state as a real Kingdom the United Kingdom of Israel and Judea and you have the famous Kings King Saul King David King Solomon King Solomon famously noted for the construction of the first of the first temple at Jerusalem and now we're going to fast-forward because in a few hundred years that temple gets destroyed by the neo-babylonian empire so let's fast forward a little bit the neo-babylonian empire led by nebuchadnezzar ii often known as the Chaldean Empire this is approximately and I'm going very high level in this video 600 BCE before the Common Era secular way of saying before the time of Christ before Christ you might often see BC which would refer to before Christ BCE is referring to before the Common Era but 600 BCE and 600 BC are referring to the same date but you have the neo-babylonian empire and I'll stress the word neo because even though you hear a lot about Babylon when we talk about ancient Mesopotamia you notice that Babylon was only dominant for relatively short periods of time when we look at the this you know multi thousand year view of things actually most of the time in in this period the Assyrians were dominant with their capital at Nineveh but when we get to roughly 600 BCE you have never condesa the second he is the king the Emperor of this neo-babylonian empire and he goes on he searches for conquest he wants to expand his empire and he's really set on taking over the pharaohs among other people or the Egyptians but on his way he's unsuccessful on taking over the Pharaoh so let me so this is him on the way to try to take over try to take over the Pharaohs he is unsuccessful to try to take over Egypt but on the way he's able to march through a lot of what we now call the Middle East and relevant to the Old Testament he destroys the first temple that Solomon built so he destroys that temple and then he takes the Jewish people captive at or according to the Old Testament and that is the famous Babylonian captivity and that was Nebuchadnezzar who does it now Nebuchadnezzar's Empire his dynasty is relatively short-lived in the whole scheme of things the neo-babylonian empire the Chaldean Empire because by the time we get to the the or we get a little bit further into the sixth century BCE so we're around 539 539 BCE this is when you have the Persians come and invade the neo-babylonian empire the Persians led by Cyrus the Great so now you have the Persians come and take over the neo-babylonian empire and on our timeline here this is the Persians going on going and taking over more and more territory they take over Mesopotamia they're able to take over what we you know Judea and and actually this whole region that that is kind of the modern Middle East and they are successful this is a big deal because look how long this this line of Egyptian civilization is they are able to take over Egypt and they keep going their conquest and as we'll see in the next video they get very frustrated because they're not able to take over the Greeks even though in a lot of ways the Greeks did not seem as significant of an empire as the Egyptians or the Babylonians but we will continue that in the next video