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Video transcript

where we left off in the last video we saw Julius Caesar had conquered Gaul as proconsul and near the end of his term as proconsul the senators in Rome were afraid of him he was this popular populist charismatic figure he had just had these significant military victories in Gaul and they said all right Caesar why don't you just leave your position leave your army and return to Rome well Caesar sitting over here saying well that doesn't really make a lot of sense if I were just returned to Rome they already are threatened by me who knows what they're going to do to me so he decides to cross the Rubicon and enter Rome and so the Roman senators they say okay let's get Pompey the famous general who used to be part of Caesars triumphs or it but had switched sides to engage with Caesar but Pompey says you know what I'm not so sure if Caesar is beatable right now he wasn't aware that Caesar only had one Legion maybe there was a trick up Julius Caesar sleeves so Pompey takes his forces and retreats across the Adriatic to regroup with the intent of coming back and retaking Rome and so you can imagine a lot of the Senators especially the powerful senators who in opposition to Julius Caesar go along with Pompey so Julius Caesar even though he's now in control of Rome he knows that this isn't the end of it that a civil war has become that it's only a matter of time before Pompey's forces and these senators return and retake Rome so he decides to take the fight to them he puts his second-in-command Marcus Antonius often known as Mark Antony who was one of his generals in the Gallic Wars he puts him in charge of he puts him in charge in Italy and then Julius Caesar leads his several of his legions off across the Adriatic and it's a pretty interesting story in its own right they cross during the winter which was a bit of a surprise attack because no one would have expected them to cross the winter in the Adriatic and to break the blockade of Pompey because Pompey controlled the Navy but he's able to engage Pompey several times and then finally in 48b seee he is able to decisively beat Pompey at fought at the bottle of Pharsalus which is right over here in central Greece so the his enemies his opponents Julius Caesar's enemies are now defeated and Pompey is in retreat he tries to escape to Alexandria and this is where the the story gets even more interesting so just as a little bit of background in 51 BCE so right about there on that timeline and right about here on this timeline Ptolemy the 12th who was the Pharaoh of Egypt dies Ptolemy Ptolemy the 12th passes away and this was a little bit of background it was called Ptolemaic Egypt and even this guy was called Ptolemy because you might remember that Alexander the Great when he conquered Persia in the 330s BCE he also conquered Egypt and then once Alexander the Great passed once he died one of his generals Ptolemy Ptolemy the first established the Ptolemaic Empire over Egypt established Ptolemaic Egypt and so this is Ptolemaic Egypt right over here which was significantly less powerful than the Roman Empire and historical accounts that they essentially bribed their way to maintain their independence up to this point but Ptolemy the 12th when he dies in 51 BCE dies in 51 b.c.e in his will he wants two of his children to cowrote rule Ptolemaic Egypt and they were young one of them Ptolemy creatively named Ptolemy xiii was 10 years old and his daughter the other one that he wanted to Clicquot rule Cleopatra was 18 years old and this is a picture of Cleopatra and this is now the Cleopatra when in popular culture the movie Cleopatra when people talk about Cleopatra this is the Cleopatra they're talking about but you can imagine this KO rule thing doesn't really work out that well and civil war has broken out in Ptolemaic Egypt with the supporters of Ptolemy the thirteen you can imagine this is only a ten year old young young kid it's really the adults that are probably running the show but the supporters of ptolemy ptolemy xiii are the ones that seem to have the upper hand at the time that Pompey is running away to Alexandria which is the seat of power city established by Alexander the Great and the seat of power in Ptolemaic Egypt now the supporters of ptolemy xiii they say okay we don't want to mess around with julius caesar who seems to be quite powerful with his legions so why don't we do him a favor when Pompey comes why don't we kill him and so in 49 B or 48 BCE this is after remember Pharsalus Pharsalus was in for August of 48 BCE you have Pompey leaving and in 48 BCE he is killed so Pompey is now killed in 48 BCE by the supporters of ptolemy xiii thinking that this is going to carry carry favor with them with Julius Caesar well Julius Caesar really does not like this he wanted to he likes to establish his reputation as a magnanimous ruler someone who likes to forgive his enemies someone who wants to unify the people of Rome and so he's in pursuit of Pompey when he gets to Alexandrian realizes that he was killed by ptolemy xiii supporters he decides to take the other side and join forces with Cleopatra and not only is he able to support her in a political military sense he helps her defeat her enemies and become and come on to the throne become the Pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt he also has a fate and affair with Cleopatra and at the time this is now 48 BC 48 BCE where you have so let's see this is 50 49 48 BCE which is roughly 40 late 48th and early 47 BCE where when Julius Caesar was actually in Alexandria they actually have an affair and this is a julius caesar who was in his early 50s and this is a Cleopatra who is in her early 20s and through that affair they have by most accounts a child cesarean later on but this affair puts or I guess this support for Cleopatra puts Cleopatra on the throne and even though Zhu Caesar does not take control of Ptolemaic Egypt it makes Ptolemaic Egypt something of a client state something of a client state of the Roman Empire and then Julius Caesar returns back to Rome he does mend several other things engaging in the east here but eventually he gets back to Rome and over several periods he gets himself declared dictator and dictator today has a term of someone who kind of takes power maybe unlawfully someone who just runs the show under Roman law under the Roman Republic there was actually a position called dictator that could be appointed for these six-month terms especially when there was in times of emergency that they could do whatever they needed to do but now he got appointed dictator multiple terms and for more than six months and in 46 he gets elected dictator for 10 years so now 46 BCE is see this is 45:46 BCE he gets elected dictator for a term of 10 years and then in 44 BCE he gets he declared he gets declared dictator for life now this whole time even though he tried to be someone somewhat conciliatory against his enemies his enemies were kind of brooding and saying what can we do to get back at this and so on March 15th 44 BCE and this is one of the most famous dates in history his opponents in the Senate led by Marcus Junius Brutus literally attack Julius Caesar in Rome and this is an artist's depiction of that attack and they kill him you might have heard of the Ides of March Ides of March that is the date March 15th and it's referring when people say it today they're referring to that event that happened that happened on March 15 44 BCE where the dictator of Rome and he was really Emperor even though he wasn't Claire temper yet he had absolute power over Rome Julius Caesar was killed by his enemies and that those enemies were led by Marcus Junius Brutus and as you can imagine this then puts Rome into another phase I guess you could say of the civil war or you could say into another civil war now before we leave Julius Caesar it is worth saying some of the things he did he did try to do some of these populist reforms he's also well known for establishing the Julian calendar Julian calendar the Roman calendar before the Julian calendar was got pretty off on an annual basis but the Julian calendar got a lot closer to our current Gregorian calendar that we use today so the days didn't shift as much as earth orbited around the Sun so I'll leave you there and in the next few videos we'll talk about what happened after Julius Caesar the Civil War I really could say the civil wars that broke out and how they really culminated with Rome officially going from being a republic to an empire