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Current time:0:00Total duration:7:45

Video transcript

in the last video we started with the story of the patriarchs in Genesis how Abraham settles his people in Cannon but eventually they get enslaved in Egypt and according to the Old Testament that enslavement lasts for over 500 years until we have the emergence of Moses whom we also spoke about in the last video and the next four books of the Hebrew Bible which are often given authorship to Moses these really talk about Moses freeing the Jewish people from enslavement getting the commandments the the the law from God and eventually bringing the people so that they can resettle back in Canon and as I mentioned in the last video these first five books of the Hebrew Bible also the first five books of the Christian Old Testament they are referred to as the Torah and they are given authorship to Moses although historians are doubtful of that and even the historicity to the degree to which to these our historical characters are significantly debated but we have the Jewish people according to biblical accounts now in Canon and as we go into the rest of this video we're getting into more of a historical period with the first significant kings of the Israelites so now we're getting into the first millennium BCE the people the Israelites are settled in Canon and around in the 11th century BCE you have King Saul comes to power and he's considered to be the first significant king of the you or the first King really of a United Kingdom of Israel and Judah so this is King Saul he was then succeeded by King David and it is who was his son-in-law but it was a very contentious succession and David is considered a significant figure in Judaism and Christianity and Islam he's considered a warrior poet philosopher he really strengthens and really unifies the kingdom and then he's succeeded by his son King Solomon and King Solomon was is famous in biblical accounts for his wisdom and he's also known for creating the first temple in Jerusalem and as we will see this first temple in Jerusalem the way that I've marked it off on this timeline the green is periods according to biblical accounts and then later according to historical accounts as well when the Jewish people were for the most part not in Canon where they were in captivity or they were being enslaved there were an exile someplace else the white that I show here and so this is the enslavement in Egypt and this is going to be the Babylonian captivity that we're going to talk about shortly and then the white this is when we have the existence of the temples in Jerusalem so the first temple in Jerusalem this is a depiction of it was started it was built by Solomon now this the the unified kingdom of Judah and Israel all don't last beyond these three kings shortly thereafter they get it gets fragmented into two kingdoms the kingdom of Judah and the Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Israel is going to be overrun by the neo-assyrian in 722 when they refused to pay tribute to the neo-assyrian king and the kingdom of Judah essentially becomes a client state of the Assyrians it's important to keep in mind even though these are called kingdoms for most of these history their client states to larger powers whether it's the Assyrians the Babylonians the Egyptians the Seleucids they keep being client states but they are also have some degree of autonomy which is why they're called kingdoms so in 722 you have the Kingdom of Israel being overrun and many of the Jewish people having to go into exile and being held captive by the neo-assyrian and then as we get into the sixth century BC you have the famous Babylonian conquest the neo-babylonian conquest of nebuchadnezzar ii who conquers judah and once again this is really a side battle between the NiO Babylonians and the egyptians and we talk about that in other videos but that takes us to the Babylonian captivity so this is a picture here of Jerusalem and maybe as equally important that first Temple of Solomon being destroyed and the Jewish people being taken into captivity where they are taken from Jerusalem where they are taken from Jerusalem to Babylon and they're held in captivity a significant fraction of them are held in captivity in Babylon from this period from around 597 586 BCE until Babylon is conquered by Cyrus the Great conquered by the Achaemenid Persians that we talked about in another video and so once again the end of the captivity is really a side effect of larger battles and conquests going on but Cyrus the Great he frees the Jewish people in 538 BC this is the end of the Babylonian captivity and he resettle them back in Jerusalem and they he also assists and his successors assist in the rebuilding of the temple and so then you have the Second Temple of Jerusalem and you often will hear Second Temple Judaism because this is a period now where the Jewish people are resettled in Jerusalem they are rebuilding that second temple that a lot of the Old Testament takes its modern form now this is going to last for several hundred years as I mentioned the Kingdom of Judea is a client state of all of these various empires and eventually becomes a client state of the Roman Empire as we get into the as we get into the end of the first millennium BCE and as we get to 70 CE II so this is shortly after the time of Jesus you have the first Jewish role sometimes referred to as the Jewish revolt and in that the Romans are destroy the Second Temple and this is really significant the Second Temple which as we mentioned it starts getting rebuilt at the end of the captivity and famously gets really nicely constructed as we get into the first century BCE but then in 70 CE II Jerusalem is destroyed again this time by the Romans and this begins the beginning or this at the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora where they are they are exiled for now we're talking thousands of years from Rome and they spread through the Roman Empire and other empires and we talk more about that in other videos and this is a significant thing because now the Jewish people are for the most part dispersed they don't have a temple and you don't see a significant resettlement of the Jewish people into this area until we get to the twentieth century