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Current time:0:00Total duration:6:40

Exchange between Rome, Carthage, and the Phoenicians

Video transcript

Gustin previous videos how rome became a republic in 509 BCE but it's worth noting and I've done this in other videos that at that point Rome was not this vast empire it was really just in control of Rome itself but over the next few hundred years it starts to expand Rome is a militaristic society the Roman legions start to exert its influence over more and more of the surrounding people on the Italian peninsula and we keep going several hundred years until we enter into the 3rd century BCE and this is a map of what the what the Mediterranean at least looks like roughly as we enter into that 3rd century BCE and you see even though that Rome has now exerted its power over most of the Italian peninsula right over here it was not the dominant power in the Mediterranean it was really the upstart the the new and growing Empire there were other significant empires you see here the remnants of Alexander the Great's Empire his successors each now at their own significant Empire and in particular Ptolemaic Egypt and Seleucid Persia which had control over much of the Middle East and the other empire that you see here in blue was the Carthaginian Empire and as we will see in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE Rome and Carthage are going to come at loggerheads and Rome eventually is going to overthrow Carthage as the dominant the dominant Empire in the Mediterranean but you can see in this map right over your entering into the 3rd century BCE Carthage that you see in blue was a significant Empire so the question is is who were these Carthaginians so the answer is is that they were Phoenicians and another answer is even the Phoenicians did not call themselves Phoenicians but to understand where all of this came from we have to go back 5,000 years ago five thousand years before roughly five thousand years before now around 3,000 BCE where you have the these city-states like tire and sedan I don't know if you can see those well let me rewrite it that is tire this is sedan now this map is obviously a map of the third century BCE but if you go back to when these cities were founded in fact before they were laid before they were I guess you could say put under the influence of Nebuchadnezzar and then a committed Persia these were independent city-states and they're in they're actually existing cities in modern-day Lebanon and in this region then the leading cities were tire in Sudan you had a group of people that would later be known as the Phoenicians and the Phoenicians were famous for many things so they were famous as traders as as as really shipbuilders and traders and they colonized much of or large segments of the coastline of the Mediterranean and this is going back thousands and thousands of years and Carthage was one of those colonies it was established in the 9th century this is what modern-day historians believe sometime between 846 and 813 BCE it was it was a it was a Phoenician colony it was set up as really a trading post for the Tyrians right over here and the reason why they're called Phoenicians they didn't call themselves Phoenicians these Phoenician people they were called that by the Greeks and later the Romans because they were famous for trading their purple dye so they had their purple dye which they got which was derived from mo liske mucus that they were able to that they were able to get from the sea as gate as Great Sea traders and shipbuilders so they have this purple dye and the term for this purple dye it was you it was related to the word pannikin or Phoenicians and I know I'm not pronouncing it well and so the the Greeks and the Romans of the time called them the Phoenician people for their purple dye now Carthage as we will see in probably the next video Carthage has a series of wars with Rome which are called the Punic Wars and I've always wondered where does that term Punic come from why isn't it called the Carthaginian Wars or the Rome Roman Carthaginian wars and that's because the Carthaginians were referred to their origins as coming from Phoenicia and the Latin term for that was pona 'kiss once again related to the Greek word for that purple dye so pentakus became Punic and so the idea of Phoenician phonation Venetian these are all related words to each other so when we're talking about the panic we're talking about the Punic Wars these are the Romans or this is the modern-day English the Romans would have said Poe NICUs the these wars are referring to the wars with Carthage who are descendant from the Phoenicians now just as a side note another thing that you might be wondering about is hey this word Phoenician it looks it looks it looks familiar it looks like phonetic like the phonetic alphabet and that was the other famous contribution of the Phoenicians is that our alphabet the idea of our alphabet was derived from the fennec from the phonetic alphabet of the Phoenicians so the Phoenicians did many many many things they settled much they were one of the real naval powers of the Mediterranean going back thousands and thousands of years by the time we get to the middle Roman Republic we're in the 3rd century BCE we're in the 200s BCE the the ancient cities of tyre and sidon they're not part of the Seleucid Empire the Seleucid Empire was one of the successor empires of Alexander the Great's but their offspring so to speak Carthage is now a dominant power in the Mediterranean and with Rome starting to exert its might although it has very powerful armies it does not at this point have a very powerful Navy but as we will see as we get to 264 BCE these two great powers in the Mediterranean start to come into a little bit of conflict good