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Current time:0:00Total duration:10:16

Video transcript

we finished the last video in the year 40 BCE where the year began with the Parthian invasion of Syria and the eastern provinces of the Roman Republic and really is an empire the Roman Republic or the Roman Empire but Marc Antony who was in control of the east of the Empire he wasn't able to deal with it immediately because he goes to Brindisi 'm in order to take his wife's side on a civil war between her and Octavian now his wife dies and he makes good with Octavian in fact so good with Octavian he marries Octavian's sister Octavia and they decide all right let's let's continue to be friends here and they divide the Roman Empire the Roman Republic whatever you want to call it between them where Marc Antony keeps control of the east you now have Octavian with control over the West and they gave Lepidus who's always a bit of the third wheel here they gave him some of the southern provinces right over there now it seems like all is good but as we've already talked about the tension between Antony and Octavian is there it was there from the beginning and in this video we're going to see that it gets a lot a lot worse so Marc Antony goes back to the east where he starts planning his invasion of Parthian not only does he want to take back the territory that they took in 40 BCE but he actually wants to avenge them for Crassus his death in 53 BCE Julius Caesar had been plenty of planning an invasion of Persia and you have to remember after Alexander the Great all of these Western rulers especially the Romans they all had their sights on Persia they said hey maybe I can be just like Alexander the Great and take over the Persians so Mark Antony is planning his invasion of Persia but he doesn't get the troops that he wants from Octavian and so that starts to build the tensions even further but he goes to his his lover Cleopatra who is the richest woman in the world the pharaoh of each and says hey can you give me some Egyptian troops and so he plans an invasion of Parthian Parthian Persia with a combined Roman and Egyptian troops now unfortunately that is a failed invasion as they try to make their way in they get pretty far but they weren't able to complete to protect their supply lines carefully and so the Parthians are able to the Parthians are able to attack them attack their supply lines and while they do the king of armenia just kind of doesn't really do anything about it and so a Mark Antony is forced to retreat and so you can imagine he's not too happy about this the Parthians in 40 BCE were able to take all of this territory in 36 BCE we're so now we are right now we are right over here in 36 BCE we have a failed I guess your revenge invasion of the Parthians he's betrayed by the Armenian King now the other thing that's happening is that Lepidus is now out of the triumvirate he tries to do a little bit of a land grab after after him and Octavian go after another I guess a governor in Sicily but when they're successful when Lepidus tries to take control of Sicily Octavian says no no no no not only can you not do that but you're now out of you're now out of the triumvirate so 36 BCE is a situation where Octavian continues to try to consolidate his power in the West Lepidus is now out and Mark Antony faces another I guess you say embarrassment against the Parthians so then we get to 33 BCE so let's see this is 33 BCE right over here on this map and finally he is able to muster up enough of a force to take not revenge on the Parthian but to take some of the territory but in particular to take revenge on the Armenian King and so Mark Antony you know it's his first win after a while tries to make a lot of this and so when he goes he goes back to Alexandria where of course his lover Cleopatra reigns and there he has this big celebration to say hey look I went and was able to take out the king of Armenia now this this celebration it rubs the Romans in the wrong way and on a whole bunch of dimensions one they never really like Cleopatra they view her as a as a foreign Queen they didn't like her when she was the Julius Caesar's lover they definitely don't like her when she's mark Antony's lover and they're kind of peeved that he decides to go to Alexandria and do this ceremonial victory party that typically only happened in Rome it looks like this guy doesn't really even do himself as Roman anymore he likes to go back to Alexandria and the real salt that he rubbed especially in Octavian's wounds was a speech he gave which will later be known as the donations of Alexandria so when he starts doing is putting his children especially the children that he has with Cleopatra as the rulers of a lot of the eastern provinces but the worst thing that he does is in that speech in the donations of Alexandria this is in 33 BCE right over here he declares that Cleopatra's son that was apparently the son of Julius Caesar Caesarion that he is the rightful heir to Julius Caesar now Octavian does not like this he says hey I'm the adopted son I'm the rightful heir I don't like the caesarian guy and so for the next few years and 33 and 30 to be seized or in this period on that timeline where this we were in this period on this timeline tensions start to get a lot lot lot worse between Octavian and Mark Antony they are publicly accusing each other of not even being legitimate people with legitimate Authority they are really starting to question each other they're really starting to go at each other and it all culminates in in 31 BCE it all colonnades in 31 BCE so this is where we are right over here with the naval battle at Actium and for the most part and Mark Antony and Cleopatra are both there and they're on their heels they are surrounded by the forces of Octavian and the best that they can hope for is just an escape and Antony and Cleopatra are able to escape and it's very clear from that battle that they really only cared about saving their own hides and their own wealth and they left the most of their Navy they they returned with only 60 boats to Alexandria but they leave most of their Navy to kind of have to deal with the forces of Octavian so they were already on the heels they have this escape and 31 BCE most many historians will call the Battle of Actium and this is a depiction of the naval battle at Actium right over here as the end after this it was a there was no chance really for Cleopatra and Mark Antony in any way to rival Octavian that Octavian was now the real sole power and what is evolving from a Roman Republic to a Roman Empire but ante and Cleopatra maybe they didn't realize it as much they go back to Alexandria and continue to plot seeing how they can get back at Octavian so Octavian doesn't want much of this so he decides to go attack them in Alexandria in 30 BCE and Antony tries to make a last stand against Octavian but his military his soldiers really aren't in the mood to fight so he goes back to the palace he looks for Cleopatra Cleopatra gets one of her servants to tell Marc Antony because she has no mood to see him because who knows he's he's raving mad he might want to kill her kill him who knows what he might want to do Cleopatra had her servant tell Mark Antony that Cleopatra was dead and so Marc Antony he's already down his soldiers have deserted him there's no way for him to take on Octavian he's essentially lost and now Cleopatra his lover is apparently dead he stabs himself repeatedly in the stomach now Cleopatra finds out about this and then she has Mark Antony - he doesn't die immediately stabbing yourself in the stomach is a way of having a very slow and painful death and while and he dies essentially in her arms and then Cleopatra is taken then by the forces of Octavian but then she too decides that she wants to commit suicide or at least that's what most accounts say and the most common account is that she gets a snake smuggled into her rooms a poisonous snake that she taunts and gets to bite her which allows her to die so both Cleopatra and Mark Antony die 30 BCE and Octavian now this really the main power he kills caesarian who was Cleopatra's son with Julius Caesar as the only possible rival and so here we are on 30 BCE Octavian is victorious and then he goes back to Rome and continues to consolidate his power until we get to 27 BCE which is often marked as the beginning of the Roman Empire when Octavian was given the name Augustus which means illustrious one and from then on he will continue to reign with more and more and more power that he continues to consolidate for many many many many more decades