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Current time:0:00Total duration:8:12

Video transcript

first civilization that we have evidence of around modern-day India and Pakistan is the Indus Valley Civilisation and it's right around the Indus River in modern-day Pakistan and Northwest India and in other videos we talked about how it really comes into being in the third millennium BCE and as we enter into the second millennium BCE it starts to decline and we don't know exactly why it declined might have been climate change drying up of a river might have been a natural disaster it might have been an influence of other people's and we're going to talk about in this video is the next significant period in the history of South Asia and it involves the migration or the introduction of another group of people we believe another group of people and that's the indo-aryans let me write this down indo-aryans sometimes referred to as just the Aryans who we believe start began to migrate into Northwest into modern-day Pakistan and Northwest India at right about the same time that the Indus Valley Civilisation was declining and some historians actually believe well maybe in the Saudi civilization declined because of them maybe it was some type of an invasion although that theory is not as widely held anymore some folks believe that the indus valley civilization and this indo-aryan migration somehow merged but this period that we're talking about with the migration of these indo-aryans this is called the vedic period or the vedic period and it's called the vedic period because we learn about it from a collection of literary works that we get from that time most famously the Vedas and Veda comes from Sanskrit and Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas it Vedas in Sanskrit means knowledge and they're the foundation of one what we know about the Vedic period but they're also the foundation of modern Indian culture and religion now the primary the primary a pieces of the Vedas are the Rigveda the yeah or vada the sama Veda and the Attar vedera and the Rig Veda in particular is considered the oldest of the Vedas it's believed that it was composed around the early part of that Vedic period between maybe 1500 BCE and around 1200 BCE so we're talking over we're talking between 3,000 and 3,500 years ago while these three Vedas we believe were composed later now these indo-aryans it's believed were essentially pastoralists there were cattle herders perhaps nomadic but as they began to settle not just the Indus River Valley they actually began to settle the entire Gangetic plain which would include this area which would be north-east india as well as countries like Bangladesh in the Indus and the Ganges or two of the most significant rivers in India but as they started to settle the Gangetic plain they also became more traditional farmers and so in this green here I've highlighted when they became more farmers and started to have more settled kingdoms where we believe started to have more settle kingdoms and other significant Hindu epics we believe the events of them were happened around that late Vedic period the events of the Mahabharata and the Ramayana now the Vedas and these epic poems were originally orally transmitted but then later either in the late Vedic period or after the Vedic period was when they were actually written down and just so you have some context here Sanskrit is considered one of the oldest indo-european languages we have and I'll talk more about indo-european languages in a little bit because it turns out that Sanskrit is related to European languages like Greek and Latin and even Germanic languages and Sanskrit is one of the oldest alongside Mycenaean Greek and the Hittite language and those were all contemporary civilizations of around this period right over here in the second millennium BCE and if you have context siddhartha gautama buddha his life was in one of these Vedic kingdoms in the North East of India now as I mentioned the Vedas laid the foundation for much of what we consider to be modern day India in fact the first reference documented reference to the Indus River we have from the Vedas the Indus Valley Civilisation we haven't been able to decipher their writing they didn't write down the word Indus it was in the Vedas that we have the word Sindhu and Sindhu was later changed or mispronounced or or just trans or pronounced differently into other words that we now associate with India words like Hindu Indus and India they all derived from Sindhu which was referred to which was the river referred to in the Vedas and then changed into Hindu Indus and things like India now also in the Vedas is the first time that we have reference to a stratified social structure and we see that with the varnas that are referred to with at the top you have the brunt and you could use these as the social roles or classes at the type of the Brahmins the priests the scholars and the teachers then the next you have the Kings and the war is referred to as the Tkachuk shut Padilla's then the vices or the farmers emergency artisans and then the should rise the laborers now some historians and and Vedic scholars believe that these reference to the varnas related were added after the Vedic period to things like the Rig Veda and some believed that these weren't traditional caste as it sometimes perceived today but just a reference to different social strata that it wasn't necessarily inherited we are not actually sure about that but just to give you a feel of what was in the Rig Veda and I encourage you to go look at the actual primary texts and there's a lot of there to read it includes prayers it includes praise of the gods it includes rituals but also has a lot of interesting philosophy and for example this is part of this is from the Rig Veda this is a hymn referred to as Mesabi Asuka and the it's in you could use is a tenth book the 129th him and I find it really interesting because it shows a fairly mature philosophical attitude this is actually a the origin him and this is just part of it we're talking about the origin of the universe who really knows who will be who will here proclaim it whence was it produced whence is this creation God's came afterward with the creation of this universe who then knows whence it has arisen whether God's will created it or whether he was mute perhaps it formed itself or perhaps it did not only he who is the overseer and highest heaven knows only he knows or perhaps he does not know I just find it interesting because it takes almost a little very philosophical view towards this very fundamental question of the origin of the actual universe so the vedic period very important period in india it really lays the foundation for what we consider to be modern Hinduism modern-day India it starts as really a Bronze Age civilization but as we get into the later Vedic period we see them smelting iron and creating iron tools and and things like that and it's and as we'll see in the next video the language of the Vedas the Sanskrit when Western scholars start to discover it they start to have it opened up their minds as to what were the roots of many of the people who settle not just North India but also Europe