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Thermodynamics

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First Law of Thermodynamics introductionMore on internal energyCalculating internal energy and work exampleHeat and temperatureSpecific heat and latent heat of fusion and vaporizationChilling water problemPressure-volume workMacrostates and microstatesQuasistatic and reversible processesWork from expansionPV-diagrams and expansion work
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Calorimetry and enthalpy introductionEnthalpyHeat of formationHess's law and reaction enthalpy changeHess's law exampleBond enthalpy and enthalpy of reactionBond enthalpy and enthalpy of reaction2015 AP Chemistry free response 7
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Introduction to entropySecond Law of ThermodynamicsEntropy: Embrace the chaosWork done by isothermic processCarnot cycle and Carnot engineProof: Volume ratios in a Carnot cycleProof: S (or entropy) is a valid state variableThermodynamic entropy definition clarificationReconciling thermodynamic and state definitions of entropyEntropy intuitionMore on entropyMaxwell's demon
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Gibbs free energy and spontaneityGibbs free energy and spontaneityGibbs free energy exampleMore rigorous Gibbs free energy / spontaneity relationshipA look at a seductive but wrong Gibbs spontaneity proofChanges in free energy and the reaction quotientStandard change in free energy and the equilibrium constant2015 AP Chemistry free response 2c

About this unit

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, "thermo," and work, "dynamics." We will be learning about energy transfer during chemical and physical changes, and how we can predict what kind of changes will occur. Concepts covered in this tutorial include the laws of thermodynamics, internal energy, heat, work, PV diagrams, enthalpy, Hess's law, entropy, and Gibbs free energy.