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Video transcript

all right so let's talk a little bit about residential segregation so when we talk about residential segregation we mean that groups of people basically separate out into different neighborhoods now when I say groups of people oftentimes we actually mean groups of people by race but sometimes you can meet groups of people by income now what's really important about segregation this residential segregation is the concept that where we live really affects our life chances because where we live affects our politics our health care our availability to educational resources so where we live is actually pretty important let's look at this neighborhood that we see on the bottom left of the upper screen now let's imagine both red and blue people live in this neighborhood so the first thing we see we see a pattern and we can we can describe this as we can describe this pattern as being uneven so we can see that there's groups of people living in different neighborhoods both blue and red are not equally distributed so there is a pattern of residential segregation that is present in the neighborhood but actually there are two other forms of segregation that we can talk about so the first one of these forms I want to talk about is something called concentration and concentration is a form of segregation and what concentration means concentration means that there's a clustering of the different groups so not only is a distribution different but they actually cluster together so the Reds and the blues mate and have a more intense pattern of clustering so what did what could that look like on our in our neighborhood so what we could see here is that the the Reds actually clustering on the bottom right hand corner of this neighborhood so clustering is clustering in a vicinity and this is actually the former segregation is called concentration now what if you had segregation and concentration but it was actually the clustering I sure could write in the center of a geographic area or a metropolitan area well that would actually be called something a little bit different and that would actually be called centralization so centralization is segregation plus clustering in a central area and what would that look like so in the central area so what would that look like in our on our chart sonar chart if the Reds were very centrally located like so then this would be an example of centralization so they're they're segregated they're concentrated and now then a central area sources centralization so this is another form of segregation now let's talk about a way in which we can actually measure residential segregation and one of the things that we can use is called the index of dissimilarity and the index is a scale going from 100 all the way down to zero and at zero we are saying that we have total segregation so the communities are completely separate and at 100 we are experiencing perfect distribution so if we imagine a city that has four neighborhoods neighborhood a B C and D and a city lived the blue people and a red people in this example we would probably be very close or at zero because we can see that the red people are completely segregated in their own neighborhood compared to the blue people however if we change this up a little bit and actually disperse the red people are into different neighborhoods and disperse the blue people we would actually be much closer to that perfect distribution so this is an example of one of the measures that they that are is coming to commonly used to measure and this residential segregation now finally one of the things you should also that also do is ask ourselves why is an residential segregation important because communities that are segregated are politically weak their political interests do not overlap with the political interests of other communities and when that happens they become politically vulnerable they don't necessary have the votes of the political influence to keep their own schools and establishments community centers open compared to other communities who are much more politically integrated another factor to consider is the communities that are very isolated their language might change their language can be different from the language and used in other communities even within the same city so there could be an element of linguistic isolation and this make it may make it more difficult for these individuals in these more segregated neighborhoods to obtain jobs and to obtain to become more integrated in the wider in the wider city in other communities and we also mentioned that education healthcare and other resources may be of a lower quality in their neighborhoods compared to wealthier neighborhoods or neighborhoods that that other groups reside in as a final concept I wanted to mention and this concept is called spatial mismatch and this concept suggests that opportunities for low-income people who are in segregated neighborhoods may be present but they may be far away from where they actually live which means that they could they're harder to access so fun and the place that people live to where the opportunities are there's an actual physical distance a spatial mismatch which makes it harder for them to access