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the world is an unequal place let's consider Japan people in Japan live up until the age of 84 on average let's combine the men and women people in the u.s. live up until the age of 79 on average and France does pretty well they live on average up until the age of 82 well let's consider and go learn the Congo average life expectancy is 51 and 52 years wow that's a pretty big difference huh 30 years different to France and Japan at least what about India India people live it until the age of 66 years so as we can see throughout the world there's a tremendous amount of variation in life expectancy and life expectancy can be a mix of many different things access to food access to health care access to vaccinations access to clean water and sanitation so we can see that there's actually a tremendous range and Angola and the Congo are some of the lowest life expectancies in the world and Japan and France and the u.s. are among some of the highest so this really shows you some of the big variation but let's not just take life expectance agrestic water access to an improved water source or clean water in the u.s. almost everybody has access to clean water in Europe the story is fairly similar however for large parts of central and western Africa access to clean water is actually very difficult for substantial number of people in fact up to a third of people may not have access to clean water sources so as we can see already just by looking at life expectancy and access to clean water the world does look like an uneven place so what we're really looking at here is global inequality something else has actually pretty useful to do when we're looking at global inequality is to draw a champagne glass and the reason why drawing a champagne glass is really useful because the champagne glass can actually help to explain the inequalities in income that we see the inequalities in wealth that we see globally because a champagne glass glass actually represents the distribution of wealth globally now if we break down the global population into fifths and we take the top fifth in fact we call them the richest fifth the richest fifth have eighty two point seven percent of the global income what about the poorest fifth the poorest fifth on other hand barely get a look-in they barely see any of that income they get one point four percent of the global income and what about the sixty percent the three fifths that are in the middle and the mathematicians amongst you must have already worked out they get less than sixteen percent of the income between them so as we can see this glass analogy works pretty well because the richest by far are getting all the money all the income they're getting the vast majority there's another interesting fact I want you to know the richest 85 people have got more wealth than the poorest 3.5 billion people in the world as you can see that there are great inequalities in wealth and there are richer countries poorer countries and is actually a great deal of inequality in individual countries countries that are classed as being a relatively disadvantaged relatively poor within them may have extremely rich people and there could be a great deal of income disparity within those countries so we mentioned wealth let's move on to health let's take our champagne glass and let's turn it upside down because one of the things I really want to talk to you now is the maternal mortality rate this is the rate of which and mothers died around childbirth and this is super important this is a great marker for how effective and how good the healthcare systems are now I drew the champagne glass upside down because one of the things we know is that across the world there is a great deal of difference in terms of how many people died in childbirth every start right at the top we know that in Northern Europe and in America between 10 to 20 per 100,000 women may die as a result of childbirth so the rate is relatively low and then as we go to for example South America the rate increases to say 75 per hundred thousand so as we can see that's gone up now we start to rise Southeast Asia a hundred and seventy five hundred thousand and now as we can see were right we're looking at right at the top of this upside-down champagne glass and here we have central and western Africa the rates here are 700 or more 100,000 so if we consider maternal mortality to be a marker for healthcare systems health care delivery we can see that the stem of the glass we've got relatively low numbers right Europe 10 and then we compare that to central and western Africa over 700 that's a 70 fold increase in risk you know as we can see that these numbers are pretty pretty dramatic this is a champagne glass you don't want to be towards the bottom off unlike our previous statistic so as we can see global inequalities are rife whether we look at them in terms of access to water access to access to wealth or in terms of healthcare delivery