Renaissance and Reformation in Europe 1400-1600: Van Eyck, Michelangelo, Titian and more. Community Questions Late Gothic art in Italy The art of Giotto and Duccio was once known as primitive, and useful only as a prelude to the Renaissance. However, recent scholarship allows us to study the brilliant artists of Florence and Siena in their own right. Northern Renaissance: the fifteenth century Northern Europe’s wealthy merchants and nobles supported the art of van Eyck, Bosch, Dürer, Bruegel, and Holbein; art that invites us back to their world. Early Renaissance in Italy: the fifteenth century The engineering of Brunelleschi's dome, the naturalism of Donatello’s David, and the humanism of Botticelli’s Birth of Venus each help define the Early Renaissance in Italy. High Renaissance in Florence and Rome Michelangelo's Sistine Ceiling, Leonardo’s Last Supper, and Raphael's Stanza frescos shape our understanding of Western culture even today. The Renaissance in Venice Petrarch called Venice a "mundus alter”—another world. Here Bellini, Giorgione, and Titian made art as brilliant as the light that plays off the city's canals. Reformation and Counter-Reformation Why are there so many Protestant denominations (Baptist, Presbyterian, Pentecostal, etc.)? The early 16th century, a time when the Roman Catholicism was largely unchallenged in Western Europe, holds the answer. Northern Renaissance: the sixteenth century Discover Grünewald, Bosch, Dürer, Bruegel, Holbein and other extraordinary artists from the Renaissance in England, German, Flanders, etc. Mannerism The Mannerist style developed in the courts of the Italian elite. It built on Renaissance naturalism but distorts and deceives to delight its highly educated audience.