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- Hi, this Sal of the Khan Academy. And you know, we've always had a lot of content on Khan Academy for the various AP tests. And we've actually been building out a lot for American History. So I'm here with Kim, who's our history or American History fellow. And what do you bring to the table here, Kim? Did we just find you on the street? - No, actually. So I used to teach college history for a number of years, and last year I actually graded the AP US History exam, so I have a pretty good insight into what the graders are looking for when you're looking at the test. - And what we're hoping to do, we did an AP review for calculus a couple of days ago and it seemed to be really successful. So we thought it would do today. But this is still a little bit groundbreaking and we're still figuring it out, just in terms of how to do these live streams. So give us your feedback, give us your questions on the comment thread below this. But this is pretty exciting. I think you're part of the first ever live streaming AP American History review session in like, all of history. (laughs) - So this is a historic event. - That will one day make our timeline of major points of American history, the live stream. So what are we... I guess there's a bunch of ways we could tackle this. We have some stuff here. It looks like you've made a timeline of all of American history. - Yes, this is my beautiful timeline. - And so maybe we could first go through just a quick overview of it, just so everyone here, including myself, has context. And then, you've put together a pretty neat... I would say kind of high-level study guide that has the different periods as well as the different themes that the AP American History test. - So we've uploaded a screenshot of this to Facebook so you can take a look at it yourself. But basically what we're doing here is taking kind of the thousand-yard view of American history and examining these themes like migration and labor over time, to kind of give you a sense of how things are moving that will help you build intuition about what's going on in a particular moment in American history. - And not only will this help, I think, everyone understand the layers of American history, but these are often just called out on the essay portion of the exam. Or even the multiple choice. - Yeah, absolutely. So this will kind of build that backbone for you, so that when you're sitting down to answer an essay question, sitting down to write a multiple choice question, you can say, "Oh, what was going on "in American culture in the early 1900s? "Oh yeah, this was the jazz age. "This was a period of internationalism." - Awesome, awesome. Well, I know people are watching from home. They probably can't read this while I'm just holding it up like this, but you, it's available for download. We'll make that more obvious, if it's not already. So let's get started. Let's do a walkthrough of what, 400... No, 600 years of history. - Yeah, it's 600, and that's not counting-- - And we're gonna do it multiple times. We're gonna try to do it seven times in an hour. - Yeah, so that's not counting 15,000 years ago, when people actually crossed the Bering land bridge into the continental North America. So we're kind of skipping forward in time to say there were many native peoples who were living on the American continent in 1492, which was this moment of contact between Europeans and Native Americans. - You have it right there. And then we see that you have the contact, but then what's the significance of Jamestown? Why does this make this timeline? - Right. So the first kind of 100 years of settlement on the North American continent is like the Spanish, they're trying to just mine things, there's traders. So these are people who are taking resources from the New World and bringing it back to the old. They have no intention of staying. It's when we get to Jamestown and Plymouth Rock and Massachusetts Bay, this is when English settlers are coming to what will be the United States and planning on living there. - I see. So this is your first, Roanoke and all this was the first permanent-- - First permanent settlement-- - First permanent settlement. - [Kim] In what would be the United States. - And that's a little after 1600, it was 1608 or something like that. And then, and then you get to kind of the formation of the country. What was going on in this, this really 200 year period? - So that's kind of what we would call the colonial period. And this is when there are various colonies. We've got Massachusetts and Virginia and Georgia and Pennsylvania, who are all pretty much doing their own thing. And they're mostly focused on trade and farming, commerce. And they don't really see themselves as being even really part of a nation, or really anything other than British subjects who are on the wrong side of an ocean. It's kind of in this mid-1700s period when the British Empire starts really paying attention to the colonies. They're saying, "Wait a minute, "aren't you supposed to be helping us out economically? "Why aren't we taxing you more?" - Why did they start paying attention? Just, they got big enough and there was enough people there and their economies were large enough to matter? - Yeah, that and there's an economic depression in England. They have a lot of debt they wanna pay off. So they look across the ocean and say, "We have a lot of people over there "that we could be making more money off of." And for the American colonists who are very used to British power being super hands-off, this is not okay with them at all. - They didn't want that money just to kind of provide benefits to the English citizens. This was during an age of empire, where they're competing with the French and the Spanish. - So there's this Seven Years War, also known as the French and Indian War, where the American colonists and the British are fighting against the French and their Native American allies. And this, eventually the British succeed and the colonists succeed, but now England's in a lot of debt. They wanna tax the colonists to make up that debt, and the colonists are saying, "Oh, we already helped enough. "We actually provided some manpower to do this fighting." So that's when they start really rebelling against British taxation. - And not to dig too deep, we're trying to do it fast, but I always find it funny, you know, Seven Years War, what I learned in American history like oh, the Seven Years War, or the French and Indian War, but as you say the Seven Years War it's part of a larger theater, it wasn't just in the US. - This is a global war and it's hard for us to see this but this these empires all over the world who are competing for territory and resources so this is just one small part of a much larger war over empire. - And then that kind of tensions build and-- - Revolution! (laughs) As far as revolutions go, the American Revolution is maybe a boring one, right? This is a revolution over taxes. - I've seen some very non-boring memes about it. - But it's got this sort of very revolutionary idea of these enlightenment thinkers. - Oh I see 'cause you're saying with economic but then there's principles underlying that. - Right, so the principles of consent of the govern is where government draws its power instead of absolute monarchy, this is kind of the birth of true democracy in the United States. It is going to really spread throughout the world, the ideas from the revolution go many places in the world. And it's a successful revolution and I mean it is unique and it inspires the French Revolution in certain ways and so now you have, and revolution, 1776 you have the Declaration of Independence but it isn't until the late 1780s that you have the constitution as we know it. - Right, and the constitution is kind of the blueprint of American government. So before that there was the articles of confederation which was a very weak government system. They had just fought against this tyrannical power abroad and they were saying alright, well we're gonna make sure that we don't have a central government that is going to be tyrannical at home. Unfortunately that meant that their government couldn't do anything so the constitution is kind of this amendment saying okay, we are going to organize our government into a judicial, executive, and legislative branch. - It was completely a redo. - It was completely a redo. And they basically built the system of government with its checks and balances that we still have today. - Yeah, and so this new country, pretty close to the turn of the century, now we get into the 1800s. - Yeah, and so the 1800s for the United States is really this period of expansion both sort of expansion of markets, expansion of technology, and literal territorial expansion. So early on there's kind of the War of 1812 which we call maybe revolution part two. British leave us alone, really, we meant it. Followed by-- - What was it? The British were, they were back, what was the factor that brought them back? - Oh, well they never really left, actually. (laughs) - They were in Canada. - Yeah they're in Canada, they're in the Great Lakes, and what really led the United States to declare war on England is the impressment of American soldiers which are sailors which meant that British ships, the most powerful Navy in the world, would be stopping American ships and saying hey, all you Americans, you must be British sailors who jumped ship, you belong to us now. So the American government declares war and they kind of get this final go ahead saying alright, England, get out of our affairs. - Okay, so US wins again. - Yes. - And as we're expanding territorially there's kind of tensions building in line with that expansion. - Yeah, and the tension here is the existence of slavery. Slavery started in the United States back in the 1620s so this was kind of the-- - Shortly after Jamestown. - Yeah, shortly after Jamestown. So enslaved people from African and the West Indies are being brought to what will become the United States and later the United States as laborers for cash crops. So they are working in cotton fields, they're working on tobacco. And even though the American Revolution is built on this idea of all men are created equal-- - Should draw a parallel line to show this roughly here. I mean all this is slavery. - Yep. They just really did not solve the problem of slavery. So to get the cooperation of the southern states at the time of the revolution, they kind of punted on this issue of slavery and they continue throughout-- - The founding documents are very principled on people being equal and life, liberty, all of that, but yes, it was kind of like okay, we'll not dig in too deep on what that means right now, just so we're unified. - Exactly. - But as we added territory, why did that somehow exacerbate the issue? As we added territory? - The problem would be kind of the balance of power in between the north and the south so the early stages in the United States and we can take a look at our map if you want. - If we can do this. - Aha, alright, this is a beautiful map that I colored myself. (laughing) That's right. So when the United States was founded, so here are the 13 colonies there in red and then with the treaty of Britain at the end of the American Revolution we get all this territory. - These were already British territories. Britain hangs out up here. - [Kim] Right. And way over there. But then as the 19th century wears on, first Jefferson acquires a whole bunch of territory in 1803 in the Louisiana Purchase. - I always found that interesting because it's often billed as like deal of the century but Napoleon was in charge of France, he's fighting these wars, and his navy was kind of being defeated. He's like well I can't protect that anyway. - Yeah. So he sells it off and he gets a whole bunch of money to help pay for his wars over on the other continent. So we've got this whole bunch of land and then with the Mexican War all of this land. And so you can see it kind of goes right over the boundary where slavery existed in the south and this is kind of the line of slavery here. - We have a lot of videos on this on Khan Academy if people wanna dig deeper into is. - Yes, we do. And then this is the free area up here. So they had managed to keep their representation in the federal government relatively equal, so they had 11 states that were free, 11 states that permitted slavery, and then as new states started to form out of these territories, that might upset the apple cart, upset the balance of power so they just kind of. - Because if there were more free states in congress they might be more likely to abolish slavery. - Or in general pass laws that would be more beneficial to people who weren't part of the slave economy. - And this wasn't even just, I mean I'm sure there were people on both sides on like a principle level like slavery is good or bad, it was also an economic, I remember you told me once Lincoln's father was kind of put out of business because he couldn't compete with the plantations. - Exactly. Right, so there are many white people who are living in the north, who are living in what's now the midwest who they didn't have any real moral opposition to slavery, what they wanted was to be able to move out to this area and not have to compete with someone maybe moving from here with 100 slaves who he doesn't have to pay. How is this guy gonna be able to sell his grain for less than someone who's got free labor? - Yeah so you have this, most of this is the 1800s, this is the 1800s, Manifest Destiny. - Right, this is the era of Manifest Destiny so these tensions really continue as they're trying to balance power and then in the course of the 1850s there are more moral arguments about slavery, the abolitionists are saying slavery is evil, slavery is wrong, they're right, we've got to end it now, it doesn't matter what's happening over here. All slavery needs to go. And then there are sort of apologists for slavery in the south who are saying you know, slavery is a good thing, we've done so much for these people and so there's this true clash. - There's a video you uploaded where you did an AP American History, they had a passage from one of these apologists. So this isn't you making it up, this was actually a quote from one of these people. Fascinating, fascinating. So this is the 1800s. And also it's worth noting that the American Indians were also kind of being pushed back at this time period. - Right and the 1800s are a rotten century for Native Americans, maybe not as rotten as kind of this period of great death from disease that's happening really early in contact but this is a time when Native American lands just continue to shrink and shrink and shrink and even Native Americans who followed the rules, they assimilated, they converted to Christianity, found that they were still forced out into further and further Western lands. Because whites wanted those lands. - In this broader world context that also was where the US started going from this kind of agrarian because the Industrial Revolution it was kind of and economic power that can start to rival the powers of Europe. - Yeah and I think that's sort of a good takeaway for the era after the Civil War so we have this great conflict of the Civil War. - Powderkeg ignites right there. - And 1861 to 1865 and the North, the free part of the United States prevails so slavery is over and there's this kind of brief period in the South where African Americans have guaranteed civil rights, basically. They've got a military there protecting their civil rights. And then at the end of Reconstruction in 1877, the North kind of gives up on protecting them and so that starts the era of Jim Crow. - It's kind of an occupied territory until that point. - Yeah. - And so this is where you have Jim Crow beginning. And what is Jim Crow? You always hear that word, I mean. - So Jim Crow was a-- - [Sal] Is there an E at the end? - No, just crow like the bird. It was a system of segregation so de jour segregation or segregation by law that said that it was legal for whites and blacks to be in separate places. So this is the idea of separate but equal that comes up in the late 19th century saying that it is perfectly fine to send black children only to black schools, it's perfectly fine to send white children only to white schools. - This is developing and then there's barriers to voting and things like that and that continues all the way to the-- - The 1950s, 1960s. - Maybe I'll do Jim Crow in a slightly different color but that continues all the way until you know. - [Kim] Yeah. - Something like that, that's Jim Crow right over there. And as you said, this coincides with the Industrial Revolution, the US really getting its footing as, maybe people didn't realize it, but it was quietly becoming a world power. - Exactly, and part of that is-- - [Sal] Or a power, it wasn't like on the world stage yet. - Right. So the North went to all this industrial production to win the Civil War and then they have all these factories, what are they gonna do with them? They're gonna build stuff. Specifically steel for railroads and so really by 1900 the United States is the world's leading industrial power. We make more stuff than anybody else. - And then that gives us, and we start flexing that power a little bit, you get the Spanish American War right at around the same time, going into the turn of the century. - And that's a war, an imperial war against Spain which the United States is basically looking to flex its muscles saying we've got this big navy, we're super wealthy, we've got great industry, let's let everybody know we're in power. - What was the given cause and what is the actual cause? - The given cause was that the Spanish in Cuba were oppressing the Cubans who were rebelling against Spanish rule and then when the United States sent a ship down there to protect American interests, that ship, the USS Maine exploded in Havana Harbor. It was probably a boiler malfunction, but the United States said oh no, they totally blew it up, the Spanish sabotaged our ship so they went to war, they won easily I would say. - Explosions on ships are often used to justify war. Only to later be found. Gulf of Tonkin Revolution later on. - So yeah after this the United States becomes an empire, they have islands in the Pacific, islands in the Caribbean and those islands are pretty much-- - Part of the Philippines. - Yeah. And there's no path to statehood for those islands. The United States has never before taken territory, they never expected the people who lived there to become citizens. - And that to some degree is almost the definition of empire. - Exactly. - It's when you have control over people who are not formal members of your nation. - Right, and contrast that with the American Revolution, right? How much did the people in the United States, what would be the United States, like having a power across the ocean in charge of them? Not at all. So it's quite a turnaround for the United States to take on that role as the power across the ocean to a people that isn't self-governing. - Yep, yep. And so now we go, this is kind of more modern times, and this is where, just as a reminder, Khan Academy has a lot of content on modern times. You've done a lot on the civil rights, I've worked on the world wars, so for anyone who wants deeper context here, go there. We actually have a lot on the revolutionary period. - Yeah, we heard a lot from students when we started this project saying my teacher is trying so hard but she can't get past 1945 or my teacher slowed down, we never got past Vietnam and so what we did was say let's start there. So if that's a place where you're feeling less confident, Khan Academy has a ton of material in that period just to help students who are struggling with the later stages of American history. - It's videos, it's exercises, it's articles. We actually have a few overview videos of all of American history too, we're kind of making one as we speak right now live. So we go into World War One which that wasn't really an American war. - Not really, the United States only gets involved really late in 1917 and that's because the Germans continued to attack US ships in the Atlantic. - Yeah the Lusitania famously. But this was, I mean this is kind when the US is like wow, they can tip the balance. - Yeah, it shows that they're a real player on the world stage and someone like Woodrow Wilson tries to negotiate what would become the League of Nations, the first international organization for keeping the peace. - Which clearly does not work out. - Doesn't work. And the United States never joins it because there's sort of this isolationist streak. A lot of people said oh man, we should not have gotten involved in World War One and we don't want to get involved in another war if we commit to being part of one of these international peacekeeping organizations. - The US is still kind of not fully wants to be out there, the world's policeman so to speak. - Yeah, and I mean they have an ocean in between them, a lot of those problems, which has worked out pretty well for them up until this point. You have the space to develop without having to fight wars all the time. - Absolutely, absolutely. And so we go into that post war period and while you describe the '20s right before we get into the stock market crash. - Well the '20s are kind of this era of consumerism right, this is when we've got all sorts of cool new gadgets like radios and cars and people are buying them on credit so there's this massive expansion of American consumerism and also American dabbling in the stock market. That was not something that an ordinary person did before the 1920s. It seemed like a really fun game right up until it didn't seem like a fun game at all. - Until it crashed and you get the crash and then we're in the Depression. The Great Depression. - Yeah, so the Great Depression. - It wasn't the first depression, we talk a lot about it, it's the most recent great depression. - Yeah. The economics of the United States since the development of American economy have always kind of been on this 20 year cycle of boom and bust and there are a whole bunch of other panic of 1837, panic of 1819, panic of, there's a panic every 20 years when there's a bubble that bursts but no bubble burst as badly as the bubble of the 1920s. - Great Depression, and what effect did that have on the country? It was just a bad time and we got out of it, or has it somehow changed the fabric of? - Oh yeah, I mean this was really the birth of the federal government having an idea that they have a responsibility for citizens's welfare. Right, I mean for most of American history, the biggest influence the federal government had on your life was the post office. That's the only time you saw the federal government. - Which is one of the themes we'll talk more about. The US has always been very much a, both an individualistic but also kind of states have a lot of, it's very decentralized. - Yes. - People have been very suspicious of the central government. - So really that's it, the post office, until the Civil War when Lincoln expands a lot of federal power and institutes the draft for the first time but it wasn't until the Great Depression that the federal government said it's up to us to make sure that our citizens aren't starving in the street. It's up to us to make sure that when you're old you can still live well when you're not able to work anymore, so that's kind of the expansion of what we call the social welfare state. - And FDR shows up and he's kind of, people talk about Keynesien economics. - Yeah. - He uses it on a massive scale, building dams and some of it was actually to provide energy and all this but also the theory is to jumpstart the economy, to utilize all that excess capacity to get the, and that kind of starts how you've got FDR but then it really the Depression ends with-- - With World War Two. - Yeah clearly we weren't all done in Europe with World War One. - No, and World War Two, the United States had continued to be very isolationist throughout the 1930s, their idea was we've got enough problems so they really tried not to get involved in World War Two as it was beginning in Europe but then in 1941 the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor and so the United States joined this world war. - It was already going, the Japanese had invaded China in the late '30s or actually in the early '30s and then you have the Germans had invaded Poland well before the US joined in the war. - And the Germans and the Japanese are allies so after the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor the Germans actually proactively declared war on the United States. We might not actually have gone into the war with Germany had not the ally of Japan already declared war on us. - Yeah, and it's unlikely to be deeply covered on the AP History exam, but these were major things for the US. 'Cause a lot of people cite reparations and the Treaty of Versailles and Germany kind of so you have a demagogue like Hitler comes to power and tries to kind of get that German pride going and builds this war machine. That has got awfully close, scarily close. So then World War Two ends and how is the US relative to the rest of the world after World War Two? - Well the United States kind of comes out of World War Two, remember they were on the other side of an ocean so they're pretty much the only nation in the world whose industrial capacity is still functioning, right? The United States didn't get bombed during World War Two. - Yeah, the other great industrial powers, talking about Germany, England, or UK, France, Japan. They got, their factories were destroyed. - Yeah, it's gonna take them a long time to rebuild from that so the United States really emerges as the world's preeminent industrial power, they're supplying stuff to everyone. And then they're in sort of a political standoff with the Soviet Union over basically what economic and political form the world should take. - Yeah, you have (mumbles) create this economic world order 'cause they're competing against communism and they want that to win, anyone who's aligned with them has a better economy and then obviously also like a political and military escalation and then that goes all the way until Vietnam which is, what's notable about Vietnam here? It was I guess you could say the hottest part of the Cold War. - [Kim] Yeah definitely. - Although maybe some of the things of the '60s, Bay of Pigs and Cuban Missile Crisis got pretty hot. - So the Cold War never involves an actual war between the United States and Russia. They never actually are fighting against each other directly. Instead it involves a bunch of proxy wars or wars where the United States is supporting one side, usually the side that is associated with capitalism, and the USSR is supporting the other side that is associated with communism. So there's this sort of nationalist fight we call it, sort of a civil war in Vietnam where northern Vietnam which was communist wanted to unite all of Vietnam under communism and south Vietnam had the United States' help in kind of staving that off. - And it's fascinating how history all interweaves because Vietnam was a French colony, during World War Two the French get overrun by the British and then so the Japanese overrun and so you're left with that and so there's kind of a power vacuum after World War Two and so you have these different powers try to take hold but then you have communist China to the north and the US and you have (mumbles) containment and we have a lot, once again, of content on this. You put Nixon resigning, why is that notable? We only list about 15 or 20 things here, why is that, in 400 years of American history? - Maybe it doesn't deserve to be there, I don't know, but I just say Nixon was the last president during Vietnam and he says he's gonna get the United States out of Vietnam-- - And this was when both parties, Vietnam, Kennedy, who's a democrat starts getting involved, then you have Johnson really escalates. - Right, I mean being pro-communist was not a political position in the United States. So both democrats and republicans were for a strong Cold War presence. - And then Nixon comes in and everyone's saying that they wanna take us out, it's not a popular war, especially later on but then they can't help but getting further and further sucked in. - Pretty much. So Nixon presides over this, the war is kind of winding down and then it comes out that Nixon has kind of worked to undermine the democratic process by spying on his-- - The famous Watergate. - Yeah, Watergate incident. Yeah, so this was real kind of a black mark on American democracy. - But not the first. Sometimes we think modern times, things in politics have gotten ugly and all that but as you (mumbles)-- - Politics has always been that way. - Politics has always been ugly. So then we go, the Cold War ends, that's definitely a big deal. Fall of communism. - Yeah so the end of the 1980s, early 1990s, the Soviet Union collapses and you can kind of debate how much the United States played a role in that, most historians think that it wasn't very much. - It was economic, some would argue this arms race that Reagan helped accelerate really broke, our economy could somehow survive that better than the Soviet economy could. - Well capitalism clearly provided a better way of life than communism, but the Soviet Union kind of fell apart under the weight of its own problems so by 1991, the United States is the world's remaining superpower. - And that's essentially the world we live in today where you don't have this kind of two powers, you have the United States is the superpower and you have the smaller conflicts and frankly more complex in a lot of ways, fascinating. So, actually our timer is, went to sleep. We are on time. - [Kim] Alright so we still have about half an hour left. - So that was cool. Let's talk a little about some of these themes here. We'll probably touch on stuff we already talked about, but just to reinforce it. So these are the themes that come from the AP. - [Kim] Exactly. - It's like these layers of American history. So the first one is American national identity. So we talked a lot about that. - Yes, exactly, and this kind of what does it mean to be an American? Who is an American and how does that change over time? - Over here it's Native Americans. - Exactly. - And then, and you have explorers kind of showing up for discovery or looking for gold. - Yeah and none of them are thinking I'm an American now! They're thinking I'm Spanish and I'm gonna go home with all my gold and live like a king. - Yeah, and then you have English settlers and why would you want to get on a boat and go 3,000 miles and live in forests and place? - I mean, for some people it was money. For other people-- - Economic land, if you're kind of a serf, essentially a serf in England. - Yeah, England has a real overpopulation problem at this time period so there is a lot of poverty there. This, getting land. - Also religious freedom. Pilgrims and whoever else they wanted to come and these people tended to be more conservative religiously. They were somewhat ostracized in England. - Yes, yes, so this is the Puritans that we're talking about and this is a branch of Protestant Christianity which is very strict. So they are, they're not popular in England because the Anglican church-- - [Sal] Is not as strict. - Was in the ascendency associated with the royal family so they can either be persecuted in England or they can just give up and go to a new world and make a society that fits with their standards. - And so that's starting to be, you start having the settlements, English settlements in the current US, and then but at this point people in the 1700s people consider themselves English citizens. - They consider themselves English citizens or maybe Pennsylvanians or South Carolinians. They don't have a strong American identity. - And then as we go through the Revolution now the identity starts building. - Right and so they have this sort of common cause against the British Empire saying oh maybe we need to join or die, right, as Ben Franklin wrote, and kind of develop an American spirit that will help defeat the British and make the United States free. - But to be clear, as we already highlighted, even at this point it was white males. - Right, and not just white males but wealthy white males who own land. This is who an American citizen is. When Jefferson is considering who do I want to vote in this new republic, he's not thinking everybody. He's thinking the wealthiest, best educated landowners who have that specific stake in the American nation. - I think we talk a lot about things like slavery but women weren't participants in this. I would have put that on your timeline. We'll do that. When do women vote? - Women don't vote until 1920. - Yes! You see? - I'm sorry, it was more important than Nixon resigning. So this is, this is World War One so somewhere right about there. - Here someplace. This is a long time. That's not even 100 years ago. - [Kim] I know. - So anyway, back to this. So right here it's, white, landowning men was a lot of maybe what some of the founding fathers were thinking, not all of them but some of them. But then it starts getting a little bit broader. - Yeah, so if you think about American national identity in this first part of the 19th century, I think you can think about it first as democracy expanding because by the time Jackson is president in the 1820s, 1830s, the American electorate expanded to all white men. You you didn't have to own property, you could be anyone who fits the bill of white and male and cast a vote. But there's also kind of this growing sectional identity, right, if you're thinking about yourself as an American, you're probably thinking of yourself also as a northerner or a southerner. - [Sal] So early 1800s. - Very strong sort of sectional division as far as identity goes. - [Sal] And does that change with the Civil War? - Sort of, I mean the version of America where slavery is illegal prevails so I think that's part of the national identity at that point. - Yeah, starts to shift, at least on paper African Americans are allowed to vote, African American males are allowed to vote. - Yes, and this is another moment for women's rights because the 15th amendment grants the right to vote to African American men and they were already making an amendment to the constitution so a lot of women's rights activists said alright, let's add women's rights to the 15th amendment and they didn't get it. - Fascinating. And so then we get, so we're getting to this period, African Americans become more citizens although it depends on where they live and probably their economic situation and things like that. And so what is kind of, we talked about the European immigration in this period up here being primarily English, when does it start becoming from other parts of Europe? - Well we would start kind of around 1840 which is the Irish potato famine so there are just thousands upon thousands of Irish people who have given up in Ireland, they can't eat and so they're coming to the United States for a new way of life. There are also political revolutions, the revolutions of 1848 in Europe that are driving lots of other Europeans, especially Germans to the United States. So that kind of goes on into the 1870s, 1880s, and then we have a huge wave of immigration from southern and eastern Europe so this is in Italy, in Russia. - And what is that roughly, that's at the-- - That's at the end of the 19th century so 1880s, 1890s. - And this coincides with the industrialization-- - [Kim] Exactly, so they're looking for jobs. - And you read these books like Upton Sinclair and all these books that are they're working in the factories maybe under suboptimal conditions and but they're coming here for a better life. - Yeah and I think one thing that's interesting about this is because we have a definition of whiteness today that is very much based on skin color right. You look white, you're white. But they had a much different idea of who was white, who was an American citizen because originally they thought Irish people were really considered not white enough and then later on they say oh, okay well someone from Italy, someone from Russia, they're too different from Anglo Saxons to be considered white so even though they have some political rights, they can vote, they're not really considered part of the American body politic like someone whose ancestry is English might be. Not really until I would say World War Two. - Yeah, even in the 20th century it was a big deal, it was a big deal John F. Kennedy was Catholic. - Right, absolutely, 'cause he's got this Irish background. - Irish or the Catholics were Irish or Italians and so this was a big deal that he was not Protestant. - Yeah and there's strong ethnic communities too. This is why you have little Italy and Polish brotherhoods as these ethnic groups grew in American cities and then starting around World War Two these men all kind of get sent to the war together, they develop more bonds, and after World War Two-- - Including African Americans, I mean African Americans fought in the Civil, fought in the Revolutionary War. - [Kim] Yeah, absolutely. - But it becomes, people start to identify as a nation of Americans versus language, I mean English is the language but around ethnicity. - Yeah and I mean if there's one thing that brings people together, it's having a common enemy. (laughs) So the idea we're American, we're not German, we're not Japanese, these ideas really coalesce in World War Two to bring national identity more about being from the United States then having a specific racial identity. - And so now you have after World War One in the '20s the women become participants at least as voters, it takes a little while for them to get positions of power. - Exactly. - But one position of power maybe might happen soon. But that's when they get involved and so kind of those trends wouldn't you say they kind of go through World War Two? - Exactly. - Then how would you say that they've changed since then? - Well I think the civil rights movement is one of the most important sort of political and cultural movements to come out of World War Two which is, think about being an African American soldier in World War Two and you're in France and having to listen to someone say the United States is the location where democracy is true and every man is created equal and you're thinking yeah, that's not been my experience. - Or if you're a second or third generation Japanese, your grandfather immigrated from Japan to help build the railroads and your family's in an internment camp while you're fighting or something like that. - Exactly. So a lot of African American veterans come home and they say alright, we listened to all this propaganda abroad, I think if we learned anything it's how important voting is so they really begin the civil rights movement which is a national movement in the south and the north to first secure voting rights for African Americans and then they're sort of a more generalized movement for housing rights and poverty that kind of work toward a more inclusive idea of American citizenship. - And it's really interesting because, I mean, this is not gonna be on the AP American History exam but it's always worth citing, I always point it out because there weren't a lot of other non-white people here then, for example people from South Asia or and that was (mumbles) for all of us because if that didn't happen then you would have had segregation, I mean, across more broadly. - And the civil rights movement also inspires future social reform movements so late '60s and '70s there's the women's rights movement that said women shouldn't just be able to vote, they should also be able to hold the same jobs as men and be paid equally or the LGBTQ movements, also patterned on civil rights saying we're gonna use the same tactics of protest and advertisement of what's going on to try to change our social position. - And you have figures like Martin Luther King inspired by Gandhi whose revolutionary in India during the lead up to World War Two. So let's go through more of these themes. Politics and power. - Alright, this one is a little bit more specific I would say, just because we're talking about maybe who gets to rule, who is in power. So I would say this early period here it's all about the Spanish. The Spanish set up this system of slavery basically to try to extract wealth from the New World. - The best political tool up here was probably the gun. (laughs) - I would say probably the microbe would be the best political tool. And then there's kind of I would say a different, again between the north and the south, for what political power looked like. In the north they kind of set up a very democratic system. They're small farmers, they're living in small towns, they have town hall meetings and they kind of decide things pretty democratically. I mean there's religion and religion plays a really central role in what's important and who gets power in the north, but in the south there's the system of slavery and so there are these land owners who have thousands of acres of land and they really hold all the wealth and the political power so even the democratic institutions of the south like the Virginia House of Burgesses are based on the wealth generated by slavery. - Fascinating. And that continues obviously power, we talked about it, into the Civil War. - Yeah and we can also talk about the democratic and the political parties that arise in the early part of the United States. - [Sal] So what were the political parties in the early part? - So at first-- - And Washington warned us against parties. - Yeah, Washington was not a fan of political parties. - That's strange, most of us love them. (laughing) What could be better than a two party system. - This is gonna be terrible 'cause it's just gonna make us yell at each other all the time and he was not wrong about that. But the original parties were divided on this concept of whether power should be centralized in the United States or whether it should be diffused to the states so the Federalist party was all about central power, they wanted a strong central government, they wanted a national bank, they wanted lots of development and then the Anti-Federalists or we often call them Democratic Republicans, were kind of the opposite of that. They wanted the states to have most of the power, they wanted a pretty small central government and we mostly associate the Federalists with Alexander Hamilton, John Adams, and then the Anti-Federalists, their real standard bearer was Thomas Jefferson. - And if anyone has extra time while they're preparing, I highly recommend the John Quincy Adams, what is it like a six or seven part-- - Oh John Adams, yeah. - John Adams, yeah, it's not Quincy Adams, John Adams. - Yeah, that's a great miniseries. - It's very inspiring. - So we start out with the Federalists, with John Adams and then in 1800, I think this is one of the most important political dates of the United States. March 3rd, I think that's the right day, 1800. Do you know what happened? - March 3rd, 1800, that's, so what you have Jefferson versus, no I don't, what happened that day? - Nothing. Nothing happened because there was a peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another. It was basically unheard of. Can you imagine voluntarily giving up power in this sort of monarchistic world? - Yes, as recent nation-building experiments have shown, that doesn't happen peacefully normally. - It's hard to do. Yeah so the Anti-Federalists are pretty much more or less in power up until the slavery debate becomes even bigger and then the Federalists kind of die off because they were against the war of 1812. Nobody likes a hater so the Whig party kind of takes over. - What are the Whigs? I always read, but what do they represent, the Whigs? - The Whigs, Abraham Lincoln was a Whig before he became a Republican, and the Whigs were pretty much for development, they were pro railroad, pro canal. - And who were the Whigs going against? - They're going against the Jacksonian Democrats who are kind of the heirs to the Anti-Federalists. So just as Jefferson had only imagined democracy for wealthy white landowners and then Jackson said there should be universal white male suffrage, his version of this sort of anti centralized power. - So if I was a business owner in this period I'd probably be a Whig. - Probably be a Whig, if you were a small farmer out in the West you'd probably be a Democrat. - And in terms of the slavery issue? - The Whigs were generally anti-slavery, they were often sort of northeasterners, they were generally very religious, and then Jacksonian Democrats were generally pro-slavery. - And so when do we get into our modern period of parties? - Well I would say that this Democratic party is still the Democratic party that we have today. And as we've gone through the years and we've changed different issues, what they stand for changes. And then in the late 1850s the Republican party was born. And the Republican party was an anti-slavery party, the Whigs kind of fell apart in the late 1840s I think is correct and were replaced by the Republicans who had many of the same values but were specifically anti-slavery. - Yeah this was more, these were sympathetic to the anti-slavery, this was almost formed around anti-slavery. - Exactly, yeah. - And Lincoln gets elected as the first Republican president. - Right, Lincoln is the first Republican president. - And so that was the spark, as we've done in several videos where we talk about it together. - And so the Republicans pretty much stay in power up until World War One, that's when Wilson gets elected. He's the first Democrat to serve, I believe, in between the Civil War and World War One. So that's a long period. And as you know this is the business interest party which is gonna do very well in this time of industrialization. - Okay, so in this period of industrialization that's the Gilded Age, that's when you have the Carnegies and so that period, you see this swing back and forth in American history. - [Kim] Yeah, exactly. - This goes back to this politics and power theme. - [Kim] Right. That sometimes it's the Jacksonian Democrats, the everyman, very populist, and then it's-- - [Kim] Oh, 10 minutes left. - We can go a little over. (laughing) We're having so much fun. - We're trying to go fast. - You have these swings between kind of the common man and more populist movements and maybe more business interests or economic growth. - Yeah sometimes they'll say the system isn't democratic enough and then they'll say maybe the system's a little too democratic so the Republicans, except for this moment with Wilson, are in power until the stock market crash and this is a big hit for business. - Yeah and then you have FDR come in who maybe defines the modern Democratic party in a lot of ways. - Yeah, exactly, this is the New Deal, this period of increased government, work towards social welfare and the Democrats who want to spend money on social problems, on social movements in general, they pretty much stay in power until Nixon. So there's a 30 year period where the Democrats are really defining US politics. - It seems like something in the air right now, it's fun to connect it, you seem like you have what parties stand for transitioning a little bit right now. - Yeah and I mean after that we generally think of the modern era as being more conservative than this era that came before it. This is the time when labor unions are really strong and the government is spending a lot of money on social programs and kind of starting in the 1980s there's been a little bit of a walk away from-- - You have a little bit of a flip flop between the parties. Where you have the Republicans are a little bit more sympathetic to, or the civil rights movement gets a little more sympathy from the Johnsons of the world, from the Democrats. - Yeah this is a little bit confusing because there is a sort of a flip flop of the parties, especially the Democratic party which used to be the party of slavery. - The business of economic growth and business, that's kind of consistent with the founding of the Republican party. - Right, but the Democrats really used to be the party of slavery and later the party of Jim Crow but with the Great Depression and later the civil rights movement, the Democrats said if we want to get the economy back on track we're really gonna need to use this federal money and later said we should continue to-- - And gave a lot of power to the federal government. Just going back to that whole states rights, I mean FDR expansion of the federal government too which was, fascinating, we have many videos on this. We could do a couple things, we could do more of these or we could tackle more questions, do you want to do that? - What do you all think? - [Boy] So there have been a couple interesting questions that have come up. - Okay. - [Boy] First is that a couple of students are nervous about the long essay questions. - Oh, okay. (mumbling) - [Sal] Repeat the question. - Sure, the question is how do we approach the long essay and just synthesis as a general skill? And we have a sample long essay question if you want us to work on through that. - Yeah. (mumbling) We're not going to write it, we will speak to what could be written. This one right here? - Yeah, the revolution one. Alright, let's tape this one up. And you're gonna have to use your own council on migration and culture in society. - Yes, well we're gonna make this available and I suggest everyone to take a look at these, Kim's done an incredible job here 'cause this really talks about all of the major themes and these actually would be really good points to even bring up in the essay portion so really encourage you to take a good look at this. - Yeah, and I'm around you know, I answer questions on Khan Academy, I answer questions on YouTube and Facebook so yeah if you have any other questions for us just let me know. - Awesome, so let's read this. Some historians have argued that the American Revolution was not revolutionary in nature. Support, modify, or refute this interpretation providing specific evidence to justify your answer. So what would you do Kim, when you see that? You have this blank space to fill up. - So I think all of the essay questions are kind of gonna be like this, do you support, modify, or refute this interpretation? So we have three ways we could go with this. We can say support it, the American Revolution was not revolutionary. We could say refute it-- - I wanna refute it. - Yeah, the American Revolution was super revolutionary. Or refute would be like-- - Or modify. - This is yeah, this is a terrible question, here's the right question. That's a little harder to do, I don't know. I can't think of something off the top of my head that would do that. - Yeah so support is like yeah it wasn't revolutionary, modify was like it was revolutionary in some respects but maybe not in other respects, refute would be like no it was actually quite revolutionary. - Exactly, yeah. Does anyone have a pen? Like a marker, Sharpie? - But this is high level thinking. Just for you personally, where do you fit on this? My gut when I read this like no, it is revolutionary. - I would totally go the other way. - That's good. - Maybe I'm a negative Nancy. - Either one would be okay as long as we back up our points well. - So yeah, I would say the question that they're asking for us is is the society before 1776 very different than the society after 1776? Or after 1783? So there are various things that we could think about here. We could think about politics, right, we've just been going through these themes like is the political system different. We could think about society. Are social roles different? - [Sal] Economics. - Yeah we could think about economics. - [Sal] Geopolitics. - Yeah. - [Sal] Or military. - Yeah, so do all the same things of those. Or culture would be another thing. - I don't know how you could think it wasn't revolutionary. (laughing) I mean let's break it out. Politics! - Politics. - I mean, England at the time had some form, they had a parliament and stuff, but it was still they had a king on their money but now you had Thomas Payne and the rights of man and you have this little, this colony, and they're taking on the most powerful military, and navy for sure, probably military in the world and they're able to win. And it's all about rule by the individual and these ideas that they resurfaced and a lot of ways perfected from the Greeks and the Romans. - Yes. - Come back, thousands of years later. Like what was it? Roughly 1500, 2,000 years later. - This is great because you're now doing the pro-revolutionary side. - Yes. - And I'm going to do the anti-revolutionary side. I'm gonna say that the revolution wasn't that revolutionary politically because the same people who were in power in the United States before the revolution were the people who were in power after the revolution. - Like right after the revolution. But I would make that argument that sure, the year after, but this revolution and just so you all know we did not prepare this. - No. (Laughing) - This is completely improv right now. But these ideas are what allowed over the next few hundred years all of this other stuff to happen. - You are making precisely Gordon Wood's argument, just so you know. So you are like brainstorming Gordon Wood right now. - Yeah well it's true! (laughing) - When I think of the revolution, the next day it might have not changed but this was the spark that-- - So this is like a long term thing. - And actually almost immediately you have the French Revolution which didn't immediately, it became somewhat tyrannical with Napoleon and all of that, actually even before Napoleon but it did spark this in modern times, this thread of democracy. What we now take for granted, constitutional democracies, this was it! That's a revolution! - Alright well riddle me this, Gordon Wood. How different was American society after 1776 then it was before? - Well not right after. - Okay. - Not right after but once again because if the revolution didn't happen then once again you wouldn't have been able to have all of these, not only do you have a democracy but this even goes to economics. If the revolution didn't happen you would have had the big power England have all of this extra industrial might and all of this extra agricultural land, but now you had an economic power that was growing in the next 100 years that was also a democracy. And so that combination and so when you have a superpower here that's, it's imperfect, there's some parts that look a little bit hypocritical but for the most part it was true to the tenets and it became more and more true over time and it's continuing to. - Alright, so you're saying in the long term these social values came to pass. I'm going to say in the short term, I mean how can you have a revolution that says all men are created equal, and still have slavery? Right? - It was definitely not, revolutions are never, in fact by definition, you can't point to a revolution that's like clean, that like people storm the whatever and then they put the king out of rule and then the next day everything's hunky dory. Revolutions are, I don't know, you know more history than I do but from what I know they're always messy and there's always a period where people are fighting and a lot of the people who had power before still have power but they start an interesting conversation. - Yeah but does that last for like 87 years? Four score and seven years of slavery after the revolution. - I guess so, yes. (laughing) - Alright, how about economics? - Economics, economic revolution. That I would not say so much. - Alright, so that's not one for you. - For example if you were to compare and that could be like a modifying, maybe that's a point to bring up is in the 1800s economically the US and England were in some ways very similar, they were part of the Industrial Revolution, they were, so if they were the same country, unclear if they were that fundamentally different. - Alright. Well I'm going to take the international view now and say in terms of revolutions, if you compare the American Revolution and the French Revolution, economically, I mean the French Revolution was a revolution of the people against the monarchy, against the wealthiest people. Well, the United States doesn't change anybody's real-- - Yeah, you're right, I agree with you this was not an economic revolution. I mean, kind of there were pocketbook issues of taxation and representation, but it was much more philosophic. It was economic for everyone, it wasn't one class versus another class, while the French Revolution was like textbook the classes fighting it out. - Well I think I'm winning right now so you're gonna need to provide some geopolitical or cultural. - I think you're very biased. So let's see. Geographically, yeah it's unclear. I think by becoming a nation the ideas of manifest destiny became, if you're part of the British empire, you would have, the sun never sets on the British empire, they were already in India, they were already in Africa, or starting to be in Africa especially in the 1800s and so there could have been an argument that it was just an extension of this already vast empire. While here it's like this notion of Manifest Destiny is much more of a nationalistic thing. - Right so it causes Manifest Destiny. So it's a big transformation of the American body politic. - Yeah. - And I might make the opposite argument that the American Revolution was terrible for Native Americans, right? I mean the British were the major power that were defending the rights of Native Americans. That's why in the War of 1812 the Native Americans are gonna ally with the British. - But wouldn't you argue for better or for worse that would be an argument, that was a change. - Yeah. - So put it on that. - So you could see it could go either way. - [Sal] And actually in a certain way slavery probably would have ended sooner if we stayed a British colony. - [Kim] I would say so because slavery was outlawed in England before it was outlawed in the United States. - And so we're structuring, there's multiple ways to structure it, how would the world have been different if the revolution happened? Which is actually a fun thing-- - [Kim] Yeah, absolutely. (mumbling) - And just to obviously if we were taking the test we wouldn't write it this way, you'd write it out a little bit but these, how does it get graded? You've graded these things. How does this get graded? - Yeah, well I would say that what you want to do here is use each of these big themes as your topic sentences so maybe if I were doing something like this I might just right down some possible things I could talk about right, how does the economy change, how does the politics change, and then makes notes and decide which side you fall on and then use that as your thesis statement to say that oh, the American Revolution was super revolutionary because none of these major social changes could have happened down the line without it or the American Revolution wasn't revolutionary at all because it changed nothing for actual people who lived there. See I'm still arguing for myself. - And I mean this is why this framework is really valuable because right when I first saw it I was like man, maybe I could write like a sentence on this but then when you start to say okay, we could talk about national identity which is kind of culture and we could talk about politics in power, we could talk about work, technology, and exchange in economics, we could talk about culture of society, migration and settlement, so you have this framework, and if you just know, these are the dimensions I can talk about on pretty much any essay statement. - [Kim] Exactly. - Then all of a sudden you have a lot to write. - Yeah, consider these themes whenever you're thinking about writing an essay because they will kind of illuminate things for you about where things are changing and where things are staying the same. - And the graders, unlike you, are fairly impartial. (laughing) And they're not gonna-- - Right, because as long as you are making a strong argument and you're providing evidence, then they know that you're, think of them like a jury that you're trying to convince if you're a lawyer. You are making an argument and saying here's why I'm right and so what they're interested is is are you convincing them, not are you saying what I want you to say. - And how much do things like grammar and penmanship, you have to be understandable? - Be understandable, yeah, other than that. - Spelling, grammar, you don't ding. Be understandable but the main is your ideas. - Yeah and I think when I took this exam more years ago than I care to remember. - I took it even more years ago. - I had this idea that the graders were like oh, I'm looking for all the things that they did wrong so I can mark them down, but having graded it myself what I noticed was that we're looking for opportunities to give people points, the people who grade this exam they are AP US History teachers, they are college teachers and they want you to succeed so they're actually on your side. - So as much as time allows keep writing. - Yeah. - 'Cause there's a lot to write about. - And make sure you give context, make sure you say who's doing something, when, and why, because for example if you say what's one thing that the Europeans changed about Native American culture and you respond, "disease," there's not enough there for you to say where was the disease happening. - I actually don't know the answer to this, when I took it I wrote it out, but can you make a table? - Yeah, absolutely. - And write points on either side and then refer to it? Is that recommended? - Yeah, that's totally recommended. You get 35 minutes to do this question and I would say absolutely use the first five to 10 minutes just to make some notes and an outline for yourself. - But even the table itself could be part of your answer. Maybe not, okay. - They're looking for the thesis statement. - They're looking for the thesis statement and the topic sentences. But definitely use something like this just to structure it. - Just to yeah, get your thoughts in order. - Alright, we have a couple more. I think we're probably close to out of time. - Are we over? - [Woman] You're over time. - We're over time? You want to do one multiple choice just for kicks? - If you want to. - Let's do one multiple choice. - We're sticking around. - We're sticking around, this is too important. - More US History for you. - I'm still worked up about how you can not think that that was a revolution. - I'm just devil's advocate. - Yes. Alright we'll do this one and then call it a day. - Put some tape over there. (laughing) Alright, you want to do this side? Okay so this is a typical multiple choice question for the AP exam and all of these questions they have either a set of quotes or a graph or a political cartoon so they're never in the void, they're always asking you to refer to something. So then they'll be like two to four questions that are actually related to this. - [Sal] Okay so let's just try to do this. - Okay, so first let's actually look at our graph. - [Sal] You look at the graph first? I read the question first. - [Kim] Okay, I will look at this graph while you're reading this question. - The pattern depicted on the graph, and I have not seen this question before so we're just gonna give the raw how do you do it, let's see Sal get this wrong. The pattern depicted on the graph from 1450 to 1800. Alright, that's the years here. Best serves as evidence of which of the following? Now I'm gonna look at the graph before I look at the choices. - [Kim] Okay. - So let's see, number of Africans transported to the New World between 1450 and 1900. - [Kim] Alright so those are our bounds. - And then we see very few were transported prior to 1600. Which is consistent to what you were saying, it wasn't being settled, it was kind of exploration and trying to get riches and stuff. Then you have more in 1600 to 1700, you start having permanent settlements, referencing, I'm just thinking what I just learned from you. - [Kim] Yeah, using the logic of the context. - Yeah and then 1700s to 1800s you have a, that's the peak of influx and this is the peak of, I'm guessing yeah, settlement, creation of plantations, especially in the south, and then it dies off here especially because, actually before the Civil War the importation started to slow down and then after the Civil War it was abolished so that's why you have this. Okay, so now I have, I think I've-- - [Kim] You've got the context, yeah. - So the pattern depicted on the graph from 1450 to 1800 best serves as evidence of which of the following? The replacement of indigenous labor and indentured servitude by enslaved Africans in New World colonies. That just doesn't feel right because indigenous labor, we didn't even talk about indigenous labor as being a major. - [Kim] Oh yeah. - Let's see. - [Kim] One thing I want to point out here-- - Oh, but indentured servitude, that's interesting. - One thing I want to point out here is that it says 1450 to 1800 and that is not including this. - Let me get this wrong, let me get this wrong. Don't help me too much. The development of varied systems of racial categoration in the, now this doesn't refer to that at all, that's definitely, I can rule that out. I'll definitely rule that out. The effectiveness of the abolitionist movement in Europe and the Americas. So that could speak to this, but they're saying between 1450 and 1800. - [Kim] Right, so we are not even looking at this right now. - We're not even looking at this so if you just look at that part you just see this upward trend so that doesn't imply any effectiveness. So let's cross that one out. The susceptibility of enslaved populations to New World diseases. No, this doesn't say whether people survive or not. We're just saying who's coming. So that's definitely not it, and so the thing that I was about to rule out. (laughing) I was like indigenous labor, and I'm thinking more Native American labor which I'm not aware of being a major source of labor. - [Kim] In like Mexico the Spanish used a lot of indigenous labor but yeah, it wasn't as big. - Yeah, you're right, and this is to the New World, I'm kind of US centric. But you're right, we do read about indentured servitude, you get your trip to the New World but you have to work for seven years et cetera, et cetera. But this is a good example because this is one where A didn't jump out at me, in fact when I first read A I'm like yeah, indigenous labor, but then these other three were way more wrong. - Yes. - The chart had very little to do with them. - Right and it's best serves as evidence, so even if you're like that's maybe not the greatest thing, it's better than all the other choices. - So this is evidence that I'm doing this the first time. - [Kim] Yes. - Now I'm gonna do the other one. I'm in the AP American History. Which of the following contributed most directly to the change in the number of Africans transported to the New World after 1800? So now we're talking about what contributed to the change when you see this downward delta. The emergence of a more industrial economy in Great Britain and the United States. So you're talking about Great Britain, we're talking about transportation to the New, contributed mostly to change, transported to the New World, so in Great Britain, industrialization I guess you're less these large agricultural plantations, okay, I'll think about it. The outlawing of the international slave trade by Great Britain and the United States. That seems interesting. I'll kind of, I'll star that one. The increased resistance to slavery within African nations. We didn't talk a lot about that and I don't remember so this one doesn't seem too right. The influence of major slave rebellions in Haiti and elsewhere. There were rebellions, but that shouldn't impact the overall, so, and just having a more industrial economy, you still have a very agricultural country at the time. In the early 1800s. So that might have been more in the north and that's why frankly they were more on the abolitionist side so yeah the outlawing of the international slave trade, which makes sense. - [Kim] You're right. - I'm right, thank you. (laughing) Alright, well we're all done, hopefully everyone enjoyed this. Any parting thoughts for the test takers? - Don't stress. The test is not designed for you to know every little fact. What it's designed to do is to test your kind of historical reasoning, do you have this general overall sense of what's going on and using that knowledge can you make a good guess? - I didn't guess, I deduced. - You, yes. - I deduced my answer. - Put on your (mumbles) hat. - This was a deduction. - Can you deduce the correct answer? So think about the large themes and don't sweat the details. - Thank you. - Thanks a lot. - Good luck.
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