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hi this is Sal of the Khan Academy and you know we we've always had a lot of content on Khan Academy for the various AP tests and we've actually been building out a lot for American history so I'm here with Kim who's our of history or American history fellow and what what what do you bring to the table here Kim did we just find you on the street no actually so I used to teach college history for a number of years and last year I actually graded the AP u.s. History exam so I have a pretty good insight into what the graders are looking for when you're looking at the test and and what we're hoping to do you know we did a ap review for calculus couple days ago and it seemed to be really successful so we thought it would do today but this is still a little bit groundbreaking and we're still figuring it out just in terms of how to do these live streams so give us your feedback give us your questions on the the comment thread below this I was pretty exciting here I think you're part of the first ever live streaming API American History Review session in like in all history so this is a historic that will one day make our timeline of major points in American history the like so so what we're is there's a bunch of ways we can tackle this we have some stuff here it looks like you've made a timeline of evolved American history this is my beautiful timeline and so maybe we could first go through just a quick overview of it just so everyone here including myself has context and then you've put together a pretty neat out to kind of high-level study guide that has the different periods as well as the different themes that the AP American history test cares about so we've uploaded a screenshot of this to Facebook so you can take a look at it yourself piece but basically what we're doing here is taking kind of the thousand-yard view of American history and amening these themes like migration and labor over time to kind of get you a sense of how things are moving that will help you build intuition about what's going on in a particular moment in American history and not only will just help I think everyone I'm showing the layers of American history but these are often just you can called out on the essay portion of the exam or even even the multiple-choice yeah absolutely so this will kind of build that backbone for you so that when you're sitting down to answer an essay questions sitting down to write multiple-choice question you can say oh what was going on in American culture in the early 1900s oh yeah this was the Jazz Age this was you know a period of internationalism the nationalism right so awesome awesome well let's go I know people are watching from home oh well we can't read this one I'm just holding it up like this but you it's available for download yeah we'll make that more obvious it's not already so so let's get started let's let's do a walk through what 480 600 years of history yeah 600 a nice not counting multiple times we're gonna go try drew seven times yeah so this isn't counting like 15,000 years ago when people actually cross the Bering Land Bridge into content existed America so we're kind of we're skipping forward in time to say there were many native peoples who were living on the American content continent in 1492 which was this moment of contact between Europeans and Native Americans you have it right there and then we see that you have the contact but then what's the significance of Jamestown why does this make this timeline right so the first kind of hundred years of settlement on the North American continent is like the Spanish they're trying to just mine things or traitors so these are people who are taking resources from the new world and bringing it back to the old they have no intention of staying it's when we get to Jamestown and Plymouth Rock and Massachusetts Bay this is when English settlers are coming to what will be the United States and planning on living there I see so this is your first I mean you bend American Roanoke and all this moves vice permanent first permanent settlement first permanent settlement what would be the United States and that's a little after 1600 1608 or something like that but and then and then you get to kind of the formation of the country what's going on and this kind of the this really 200 year period so that's kind of what we would call the colonial period and this is when there are various colonies you've got Massachusetts in Virginia and Georgia in Pennsylvania we're all pretty much doing their own thing and they're mostly focused on trade and farming Commerce and they don't really see themselves as being even really part of a nation or really anything other than British subjects who are on the wrong side of a notion it's kind of in this mid 1700s period when the British Empire starts really paying attention to the colonies they're saying wait a minute aren't you supposed to be helping us out economically why can't why are we taxing you more why don't you pay attention just they got big enough and there's enough people there and their economies were large enough to matter yeah that and there's an economic depression in in England they have a lot of debt they want to pay off so they look across the ocean and say we have a lot of people over there that we could be making more money off of and for the American colonists who are very used to British British power being super hands-off this is not okay with them at all they didn't want that money just to kind of provide benefits to the English citizens this was during an age of empire there really you know we're we're competing with the French and the Spanish so there's this Seven Years War also known as the French and Indian War where the American colonists and the British are fighting against the French and their Native American allies and this eventually the British succeed and the colonists succeed but now England's in a lot of debt they want to tax the colonists to make up that debt and the colonists are saying oh we already helped enough right we actually provided some manpower to do this fighting so that's when they start really rebelling against British taxation and not to dig too deep we're trying to a fast but I always find it fun you know seven years were when I learned in reckon history like oh the Seven Years War or but it's or the french-indian war but as you say Seven Years War it's part of a larger theatre it wasn't just in the u.s. it's a this is a global war and it's hard for us to see this but this is you know these empires all over the world who are competing for territory and resources so you know this is just one small part of a much larger war over Empire not very and then that kind of attentions build and revolution as far as revolutions go the American Revolution is maybe a boring one right as this is a revolution over taxes very important but it's got this sort of revolutionary idea of these Enlightenment thinkers I think it's with economic right but then there's principles underlying that right so the principles of you know a consent of the governor's where you know government draws its power instead of absolute monarchy you know this is kind of the birth of true democracy in the United States it's going to really spread throughout the world these ideas from the Revolution go many places in the world and it's a successful revolution and edits you I mean it is unique and it inspires the French Revolution in certain ways and and and so now you have this you know you and revolution 1776 you have the Declaration of Independence but it isn't until the early eighteen or late eighteen eighty sorry the late 1780s that you you have the the Constitution as we know it reigns the Constitution is kind of the blueprint of American government so before that there was the Articles of Confederation which was a very weak government system you know they had just fought against this tyrannical power abroad and they were saying all right well we're gonna make sure that we don't have a central government that is going to be tyrannical at home unfortunately that meant that their government couldn't do anything so the Constitution is kind of this amendment saying okay we are going to organize our government into a judicial executive and legislative branch it was completely redo I was completely ready yeah and they basically built the system of government with its checks and balances that we still have today yep and so where this new country the at the you know all pretty close to the turn of the century mm-hmm now we get into the 1800s yeah and so the 1800s for the United States is really this period of expansion both sort of expansion of markets expansion of Technology and literal territorial expansion so um early on there's kind of the war of 1812 which we call me the revolution part ii british leave us alone really we vent it um followed by what was the British work I mean it was another we're back what what was there was he the factor that brought him oh well they never really left actually George oh yeah they're they're out of in Canada they're in the Great Lakes and one really led the United States to declare war on England is the impressment of American soldiers which are sailors which meant that British ships most powerful Navy in the world would be stopping American ships and saying hey all you Americans you must be British sailors who jump ship you belong to us now so the American government declares war and they kind of get this this final go-ahead saying alright England get out of our affairs okay and so but u.s. wins again yes and as we were expanding territorially but there's there's kind of tensions building in line with that expansion yeah and and the tension here is the existence of slavery right slavery started in the United States back in the 1620s so this was kind of that shortly after you know shortly after deuce shortly after Jamestown so enslaved people from Africa and the West Indies are being brought to what will become the United States and later the United States as laborers for cash crops so they're working in cotton fields they're working on tobacco and even though the American Revolution is built on this idea that all men are created equal shall draw a parallel line to show this so roughly here I mean all of this is you know slavery is you know um and they just really did not solve the problem of slavery so you know to get the cooperation of the southern states at the time of the revolution they kind of punted on this issue of slavery and they continued throughout the founding documents are very principled on hmm people being equal and life liberty minute all that but yes it was kind of like okay well not dig in too deep or what that means right now just so we're unified exactly but then as we added territory what why did this why was that it why did that become why did that somehow exacerbate the issue as we had a territory the problem would be kind of the balance of power in between the north and the south so the early stages in the United States and we can take a look yeah I'll see if we can if we can do this all right this is a beautiful map that i colored myself right here that's kinda right um so you know when the United States was founded so here the 13 colonies they're in red and then with the Treaty of Britain at the end of the American Revolution we get all this terror it was already took British territories Britain hangs out up here right - yes and way over there yes um but then as the 19th century where is on first jefferson acquires a whole bunch of territory in 1803 and the Louisiana Purchase and I was find that interesting because it's often billed as like the deal of the century but Napoleon was in charge of friend he's fighting these yeah wars in here and he was his Navy was kind of being that he's like well I can't protect that anyway yeah so so he sells it off and he gets a whole bunch of money that's over the other continent um so we got this whole bunch of lamb and then with the Mexican War all of this land and so you can see it kind of goes right over the boundary where slavery existed in the south and this is kind of the line of slavery here and then have a lot of videos on this on Khan Academy pelant to dig deeper and you and then this is the free area up here so you know they had managed to keep their representation in the federal government relatively equal so they had you know eleven states that were free eleven states that permitted slavery and then as new states started to form out of these territories that might upset the applecart upset the balance of power so they just kind of because if there were more free states in Congress they might be more likely to abolish slavery or you know in general passed laws that would be more beneficial to people who weren't part of a slave economy and this wasn't just even a pretty mean I'm sure there were people on both sides on like a principled level like slavery is good or bad was also an economic I remember you told me once you know Lincoln's father was kind of put out of business because you couldn't be paid with plantations right so you know there are many white people who are living in the North we're living and what is now the Midwest who you know they didn't have any real moral opposition to slavery what they wanted was to be able to move out to this area and not have to compete with someone maybe moving from here with 100 slaves he doesn't have to pay you know how is this guy gonna be able to sell his grain for less than someone who's got free labor hmm yes so you have this owner expected most of this is the 18 this is the 1801 the manifest destiny right is it the era of manifest destiny so these you know these tensions really continue as they're trying to balance power and then you know in the course of the 1850s there are more moral arguments about slavery the abolitionists are saying slavery's evil slavery is wrong the right we gotta end it now doesn't matter what's happening over here all slavery needs to go and then there are sort of apologists for slavery in the South who are saying you know slavery is a good thing you know we've done so much for these people and so you know there's just this this truth that's all you get up either there's a video you upload where you did an AP American history and they they had a passage from one of these apologists so this isn't you're making it up I mean who's actually from from one of these people Oh fascinating master so this is 1800s and and also I mean it's worth noting that the American Indians were also kind of being pushed back right I mean the 1800s are you know just a rotten century for Native Americans maybe not as rotten those kind of this period of you know great death from disease that's happening really early in contact but this is a time when Native American lands just continue to shrink and shrink and shrink and even Native Americans who you know followed the rules they you know assimilated they converted to Christianity found that they were still forced out into farther and farther western lands because whites one of those lands and this broader world context I mean that also is where the u.s. started going from this kind of agrarian to because the Industrial Revolution it's kind of an economic I mean an economic power yeah can start to rival the powers of Europe yeah and I think that's a good sort of take away for the era after the Civil War so easy we have this great conflict of the civil yeah the powder keg ignites right right yeah and you know 1861 to 1865 and the north the the free part of the United States prevails so slavery is over and there's this kind of brief period in the south where African Americans have guaranteed civil rights basically we've got a military they're protecting their civil rights and then at the end of Reconstruction in 1877 the North kind of gives up on protecting them and so that starts the era of Jim Crow hmm it's kind of an occupied territory until that point yeah and so this is where you have Jim Crow beginning and what is Jim Crow you always hear that word I mean so Jim Crow was alien uh no no no just just crow like the bird um it was a system of segregation so de jure segregation or segregation by law that said that you know you it was legal for whites and blacks to be in separate places so this is the idea of separate but equal that comes up in the late 19th century saying that it is perfectly fine to send black children only to black schools it's perfectly fine to send white children only to whites developing and it is barriers to voting exactly things like that and that continues all the way to the little did Jim Crow in a slightly different color but you know that that continues all the way until you know yeah some some something like that as Jim Crow right over right over there and as you said and this is this coincides with the Industrial Revolution the u.s. really getting its footing as a as maybe people didn't realize it but it was it was quietly becoming a world power exactly and you know part of it I power it wasn't like on the world stage right so the North went to all this industrial production to win the Civil War and then they have all these factories what are they gonna do with them they're gonna build stuff specifically steel for railroads and so really by 1900 the United States is the world's leading industrial power we make more stuff than anybody else and then that gives us and we start flexing that power a little bit you get the spanish-american war right at around the same time going into the turn of the century and that's a war an imperial war against Spain which the United States is basically looking to flex its muscles hang now we've got this big Navy work super wealthy we've got great industry let's let everybody know what was the ones you driven cause and what is the actual beginning cause was that the Spanish in Cuba were oppressing the Cubans were rebelling against Spanish rule and then when the United States sent a ship down there to protect American interests that ship the USS Maine exploded in Havana Harbor that's probably a boiler malfunction but the United States said oh no they totally blew it up the Spanish sabotage our ship so they went to war they won easily I would say closings on ships are often used to justify war only to later be found gulf of tonkin revolution later on so yeah after this the United States becomes an empire they have islands in the Pacific Islands in the Caribbean and those islands this is a part of Philippines yeah and there's no path to statehood for those Islands the United States has never before taken territory they never expected the people who live there to become citizens and that to some degree almost a definition of empire exactly it's when you have control over people who are not formal members of your nation right and contrast that with the American Revolution right how much did the people in the United States what would be the United States like having a power across the ocean in charge of them not at all so it's quite a turnaround for the United States to take on that role as the power across the ocean to a people that isn't self-governing yep yeah and so now we go this is kind of more modern times this is where I mean just as a reminder Khan Academy has a lot of content on modern times you've done a lot of civil rights I've worked on the world wars so for anyone who wants to know deeper context year go there and we have to have a lot of the Revolutionary period yeah we heard a lot from students when we started this project saying you know my teacher is trying so hard but she can't get past nineteen forty five or you know my teacher slowed down we never got past Vietnam and so what we did would say let's start there so if that's a place where you're feeling less confident Khan Academy has a ton of material in that period just to help students who are struggling with the later stages of American history it's videos it's exercises its articles yeah we actually have a few overview videos of all of Americans do although this we're kind of making one as we speak right now why so we go into World War one which once that wasn't really an American war not really the United States only gets involved really late in 1917 and that's because the Germans continued to attack US ships in the Atlantic yeah the Lusitania famously but this was I mean what this is kind of when the u.s. is like wow they can tip the balance yeah it shows that they're a real player on the world stage and you know someone like Woodrow Wilson tries to negotiate what will become the League of Nations this first International Organization for keeping the keys which clearly does not work well and the United States diver joins it because there's this sort of isolationist streak a lot of people said oh man we should not have gotten involved in World War one and we don't want to we don't want to get involved in another war if we commit to being part of one of these international peacekeeping organizations yeah the u.s. is still kind of not not fully it wants to be out there the world's policeman so to speak yeah and I mean they have an ocean in between there a lot of those problems which has worked out pretty well for them up until this point you have the space to develop without having to fight wars all the time absolutely absolutely and so we go into the post-war period and why would you describe the the 20s right before we get into the stock market crash well the 20's are kind of this era of consumerism right this is when we got all sorts of cool new gadgets like radios and cars and people are buying them on credit so there's this massive expansion of American consumerism and also American dabbling in the stock market you know that was not something that an ordinary person did before the 1920s it seemed like a really fun game right up until it didn't seem until it crash and you get a crash and then we're in the depression the Great Depression yeah so the Great Depression wasn't the first depression we talked a lot about it's the most recent depression yeah uh you know the economics of the United States since the development of a market economy have always kind of been on this like 20-year cycle of boom and bust and there are a whole bunch of utter panic of 1837 panic of 1819 panic of you know there's a panic every 20 years when there's a bubble that bursts but no bubble burst as badly as the bubble of the 1920s Great Depression and how what effect did that have on like just the country it was just a bad time and we got out of it or it has it somehow changed the fabric of oh yeah well I mean this was really the the birth of the federal government having an idea that they have a responsibility for Susan's welfare right I mean for most of American history the biggest influence the federal government had on your life was the post office like that's the only time you saw the federal government and then starting which is one of the themes we'll talk more about that the US has always been very much a both individualistic but also kind of states have a little it's a very decentralized yes evolving very suspicious of the central government yeah so I mean really that's it the post office until the Civil War when you know Lincoln expands a lot of federal power and Institute's a draft for the first time but it wasn't until the Great Depression that the federal government said it's up to us to make sure that our citizens aren't starving and in the street it's up to us to make sure that when you're old you know you can still live well when you're not able to work anymore so that's kind of the expansion of what we call the the social welfare state an FDR shows up and he's kind of you know when people talk about Keynesian economics using it on a massive scale building dams and I mean some of it was you know to actually provide energy and all this but also the theory is to jumpstart the economy to utilize all that excess capacity to get the and that kind of starts out you have FDR but then it really depression ends with with World War two yeah clearly we weren't all done in Europe with World War one no and World War two you know the United States had continued to be very isolationist throughout the 1930s their idea was we've got enough problems so they really tried not to get involved in World War two as it was beginning in Europe but then in 1941 the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor and so the United States joined this this world war that was already going the Japanese had invaded China in the late 30s or actually the early 30s and then you have you know the Germans that had invaded Poland right well before the u.s. joined in the war the Germans and the Japanese are allied so after the the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor the Germans actually proactively declared war on the United States we might not actually have gone into a war with Germany had not the ally of Japan already declared war on us yeah it's not likely to be deeply covered on the AP American history exam but since these were major things for the u.s. it was because a lot of people cite reparations in the Treaty of Versailles that Germany kind of so you have a demagogue like Hitler comes to power and tries to kind of get that German pride going it builds this war machine that it's got awfully close scarily close so then World War two ends and so how is the u.s. relative to the rest of the world after World War two well the United States kind of comes out of World War two remember that were on the other side of an ocean so they're pretty much the only nation in the world whose industrial capacity is still functioning right the United States didn't get bombed yeah the other great industrial powers you're talking about Germany England or UK France Japan big on their factories were yeah it's a long time to rebuild from that so the United States really emerges as the world's pre-eminent industrial power they're supplying stuff to everyone and then they're in sort of a political standoff with the Soviet Union over basically what economic and political form the world should take yeah you have Bretton Woods and they create this kind of economic World Order because they're competing it's communism right so they want that to win anyone who's aligned with them has a better economy and then obviously also like political and military escalation and then that goes all the way until you have Vietnam which is what what's notable about Vietnam here I guess it was the you say the hottest part of the Cold War yeah although maybe some of the things in the 60s Bay of Pigs and Cuban Missile Crisis got pretty hot so the Cold War never involves an actual war between the United States and Russia they never actually you know are fighting against each other directly instead it involves a bunch of proxy wars or Wars where the United States is supporting one side usually the side that is associated with capitalism and the unite the USSR is supporting the other side that is associated with communism so there's this sort of nationalist fight what we call it sort of a civil war in Vietnam where northern Vietnam which was communist wanted to unite all of Vietnam under communism and South Vietnam had the United States has helped in kind of stating that off and this is fascinating how history all injuries because me and I was a French colony during World War two mm-hmm the French get overrun by the British and so then the Japanese and so and so you're left with that and so there's kind of a power vacuum after World War Two and so you have these different power start to take hold but then when you have you know communist China on to the north right and the US and you're George Kennan in containment and we have a lot again of content on this you put Nixon resigning why is that notable you know we only list about 15 or 20 things here why is that in 400 years of American history maybe it doesn't describe I don't know but I guess interesting you know Nixon was the last president during Vietnam and he says he's gonna get the United States out of Vietnam this was one both parties I mean Vietnam Kennedy is the Democrat starts getting involved yeah then you have Johnson really escalates right I mean being pro-communist was not a political position in the United States or anti dominant or whatever right so yeah both Democrats and Republicans the Nixon everyone's saying that they want to take us out it's not a popular war especially later on but then they can't help but getting further selective pretty much so Nixon presides over this the war is kind of winding down and then it comes out that Nixon has kind of worked to undermine the democratic process by spying on his since water d yeah water game is part in the office building uh yeah yeah uh so this is real kind of a black mark on American democracy first I mean it sometimes we think modern times things politics have gotten ugly and all that but as you subsided also the videos okay some of this politics is always bad but then we go cold war ends that's definitely a big deal yes Salik communism the end of the 1980s early 1990s the Soviet Union collapses and you can kind of debate how much the United States played a role in that most historians think that it wasn't very much I mean you know economic you know some would argue this arms race that you know Reagan's helped accelerate really broke you know our economy could couldn't somehow survive that better than the Soviet economy could well capitalism clearly provided a better way of life and Raman ISM um but the Soviet Union kind of fell apart under the weight of its own problems you would say so by you know 1991 the United States is the world's remaining superpower and that's essentially the world we live in today where you don't have this kind of you know two powers you have the United States is the superpower and you have the smaller conflicts and frankly more complex in lot of ways fascinating so actually our timer is went to sleep we're on time okay so that was cool let's let's talk a little bit about some of these themes here and we probably touch on stuff we already talked about but just to reinforce it so these are the themes that come from the AP it's like these layers of American history so the first one is American national we talked a lot about that yes exactly so this is kind of a what does it mean to be an American who is an American and how does that change over here it's the Native Americans exactly and then and you have explorers kind of showing up for discovery or looking for gold and none of them are thinks I'm an American all right they're thinking I'm Spanish and I'm gonna go home with all my gold and look like a king yeah and then you have English settlers and and what actual entity I mean why would you want to get on a boat and go you know 3,000 miles and live in you know was the voice for some people it was it was money for other people I cannot get land if you're kind of a serf essentially a serf in England yeah England has a real overpopulation problem at this time period so there's a lot of that is getting a little religious freedom yeah the Pilgrims and whoever else they wanted to come and these people tend to be more conservative religiously and there were somewhat ostracizing would be yes yes this is the Puritans that we're talking about and this is a branch of Protestant Christianity which is very strict so they are they're not popular in England because the Anglican Church is not as strict yes yeah it was in the ascendancy you know associated with the the royal family so they can either be persecuted in England or they can just give up and go to a new world and make a society that fits with their standards yeah yeah and so that's starting to be you start having the the settlements a English settlement some people you know the us current US and then but at this point people you know in the 1700s people consider themselves English citizens consider themselves English citizens or maybe Pennsylvanians or South Carolinians they don't have a strong American identity and then as we go through the revolution now the identity starts building right and so they they have this sort of common cause against the British Empire saying well maybe we need to join or die right as Brent Ben Franklin wrote and kind of develop an American spirit that will help defeat the British and make but let's be clear as ready as we already highlighted even at this point it was white males right and not just white males but wealthy white males who owned land I am this is who an American citizen is you know when Jefferson is considering you know who do I want boat in this new republic he's not thinking everybody he is thinking the wealthiest best-educated land owners who have that specific stake in the American I think it's important when we talk a lot about things like slavery but I mean women weren't participants in this I would put that on your timeline yeah next we'll do that oh yeah Wonder Woman book women don't go until 1920 yes see I'm sorry it was more important than Nixon resigning this is yes we read about America's right here some okay so to the longtime I'm not even a hundred years ago I know so anyway back to this so right here it's it's it's white land holding men was a lot of maybe what some of you some of the founding fathers were thinking yeah not all of them but some of them but then it starts getting a little bit broader yeah so if you think about American national identity in this this first part of the 19th century I think you can think about it first as democracy expanding the coz by the time Jackson is present in 1820s 1830s the American electorate expanded to all white men so you didn't have to own property you know you could be anyone who is fits the bill of white and male and cast a vote but there's also this kind of growing sectional identity right if you're thinking about yourself as an American you're probably thinking of yourself also as a northerner or a southerner great early 1800 very strong sort of sectional division as far as identity goes and does that change with the Civil War store down I mean you know the the version of America where slavery is illegal prevails so I think that's part of the the national identity at that point starts to shift at least on paper African Americans are allowed to vote right after manner males yes are allowed to vote yeah and this is another moment for women's rights because the Fifteenth Amendment grants the right to vote to African American men and you know they were already making an amendment to the Constitution so a lot of women's rights activists said all right it starts to really wait I'm actively yeah let's let's add women's rights she the Fifteenth Amendment and they didn't get it that's it and so then we get we're getting to this period after America has become more citizens all over you know depends where they live and by their economic situation and things like that and so what is kind of you know we talk about the European immigration initial you know in this period up here to be primarily English when did it start becoming from other parts of Europe well we would start kind of around 1840 which is the Irish potato famine so there are just thousands upon thousands of Irish people who given up in Ireland they can't eat and so they're coming to the United States for a new way of life there are also political revolutions revolutions of 1848 in Europe that are driving lots of other Europeans especially Germans to the United States so that kind of goes on into the 1870s 1880s and then we have a huge wave of immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe so this isn't in Italy and Russia what is that roughly that's at the at the end of the 19th century so 1880s 8 and this is just one size with the industrialization and everything for jobs you know and you read these books like Upton Sinclair and all these folks that are you know they're working in the factories maybe under suboptimal commission and but they're coming here for a better life yeah and I think what one thing that's interesting about this is because you know we have a definition of whiteness today that is very much based on skin color right you look white you're white but they had a much different idea of who was white who was an American citizen because originally they thought Irish people were really considered not white enough and then later on they say oh well someone from Italy someone from Russia and they're too different from anglo-saxons to be considered white so even though they have some political rights they can vote um they're not really considered part of the American body politic like someone whose ancestry is English might be not really until I would say World War two yeah I mean even you know even the 20th century you know it was a big deal I mean people had there's a big deal John okay was Catholic right absolutely yeah because he's kind of a snob you know yeah Irish or you know the Catholics were Irish or Italians or from and so this was a big deal that he was not Protestant yeah and there's strong ethnic community - this is why you have you know Little Italy and you know polish Brotherhood's as these ethnic groups grew in American cities and then starting around World War two these men all kind of get sent to the war together they develop more bonds and after world war ii yeah i mean after MacOS five Asil upon the Revolutionary War yeah absolutely uh but it becomes people started identifies the nation right Americans versus language as mist I mean english is the language but around ethnicity yeah and i mean if you if there's one thing that brings people together it's having a common enemy yes so you know the idea we're American you know we're not German we're not Japanese these these ideas really coalesce in World War two to bring national identity more about being from the United States than having specific racial identity yeah and so now you have after World War one and the twenties women become participants at least as voters it takes a little while for them to get positions of power exactly like one position of power maybe might happen soon um but but that's when they get involved and so kind of those trends would you say they kind of go through World War two exactly how would you say that they've changed since then well I think the civil rights movement is one of the most important sort of political and cultural movements yeah to come out of World War two which is you know think about being an african-american soldier in World War two and you're in France and having to listen to someone say the United States is the you know the location where democracy is true and every man is created equal and you're thinking yeah that's not been my experience second or third generation Japanese you know your grandfather and we're from the pan to help build the railroads and your parent families an internment camp while you're fighting or exactly so you know they love african-american veterans come home and they say alright we listened to all this propaganda abroad I think you know if we learned anything it's how important voting is so they really begin the civil rights movement which is a national movement on the south and the north to first secure voting rights for African Americans and then they're sort of a more generalized movement for housing rights and poverty that kind of work toward a more inclusive idea of American citizenship it's really interesting because I mean this is not gonna be an AP American History exam but it's always worth citing I was pointed out because there weren't a lot of other non-white people here then for example people from South Asia or or or or and and that they they that was a recipe for frankly for all of us because if that didn't happen then you would have had segregation I mean it was coffee yeah more broadly and the civil rights movement also inspires future social reform movement so in late 60s and 70s there's a women's rights movement that said you know women shouldn't just be able to vote they should also be able to hold the same jobs as men and be paid equally or the LGBTQ movements also pattern on on the civil rights saying we're gonna use the same tactics of protest and you know advertisement of what's going on to try to change our size - figures like Martin Luther King inspired by Gandhi whose revolutionary in India during you know in the lead-up to to world war world World War two so let's let's go let's go through more of these themes politics and power all right this one is a little bit more specific I would say just be as we're talking about maybe who gets to rule right who is in power yeah so I would say like this early period here it's all about the Spanish yeah right I mean the Spanish set up this sort of system of slavery basically to try to extract wealth yeah the best political tool up here was probably the gun I would say probably the microbe the micro unfortunately yes yeah and then there's kind of a I would say difference again between the North and the South for what political power looked like you know in the north they kind of set up a very democratic system right there you're small farmers they're living in small towns so they have town hall meetings and kind of decide things for you democratically I mean there's there's religion and religion plays a really central role in what's important and and who gets power in the north but in the south there's a system of slavery right and so there are these landowners who have thousands of acres of land and they really hold all the wealth and the political power so even the democratic institutions of the south like the Virginia House of Burgesses are based on the wealth generated by slavery fascinating and and that continues and obviously power ippolit I mean we talk about a little - the Civil War yeah and I mean we can also talk about sort of the Democratic and the political parties that arise in the early part of the United States so what were the political parties of the early part so at first before Washington warned us against parties washing Washington was not a fan of political parties ah that's strange most of us love them what could be better than is like terrible because it's just gonna make us yell at each other all the time he was not wrong about Wow but the original parties were divided on this concept of whether power should be centralized in the United States or whether it should be diffused to the States so the Federalist Party was all about central power they wanted a strong central government they wanted a national bank yeah wanted lots of development and then the anti-federalists or we often call them Democratic Republicans we're kind of the opposite of that your house in there yeah okay um they wanted the states to have most power the one I had a pretty small central government and we mostly associate said Earl if Galan's Andrew Hamilton John Adams and then the anti-federalists that their real standard bearer was Thomas Jefferson yeah and if anyone has extra time while there's a very highly recommend the Don Quincy Adams what is like a six or seven part Oh John Adams John is not quince you have an hour that's a great yes that is really made it's very inspiring so we start out with a Federalists with John Adams and then an 1800 I think this is one of the most important political dates of the United States March 3rd I think that's the right day 1800s do you know what happened March 3rd 1807 happened because there was a peaceful transfer of power oh you have one political power from one political party to another app is basically unheard of can you imagine voluntarily giving up power in this sort of modern yes as recent nation-building experiments have shown it happens to be normal yeah so the anti-federalists are pretty much more or less in power up until the the slavery debate kind of becomes even bigger and then the Federalists kind of die off because they were against the war of 1812 okay nobody likes a hater so um the the Whig party kind of takes over one of the Whigs I always read what are they where they represent the Whigs Abraham Lincoln was a wig before he became a Republican and the Whigs were pretty much for they were for development they were Pro railroad Pro Canal and who are the Whigs going against they're going against the the Jacksonian Democrats were kind of the the heirs to the anti-federalists so you know just as Jefferson had only imagined democracy for wealthy white landowners and then Jackson said there should be universal white male suffrage his version of this sort of anti centralized listen look if I was a business owner at this period I'd probably be a wig probably be a wig if you were a small farm around the West you'd probably be a Democrat and and in terms of the slavery issue the Whigs were lukewarm and really anti-slavery slavery you're often sort of northeasters they were generally very religious and then Jacksonian democrats were generally pro-slavery and so when do we get into a kind of our modern period of parties well I would say that this Democratic Party is still the Democratic Party that we have today and you know as we've gone through the years and we've changed different issues you know what they stand for changes and then in the late 1850s the Republican Party was born mm-hmm and the Republican Party was an anti-slavery party the Whigs kind of fell apart in the late 1840s I think is correct um and we're replaced by the Republicans you had many of the same values but we're specifically anti-slavery yeah this is more like these were sympathetic to the anti-slavery this was almost formed around the anti slate exactly yeah and Lincoln gets elected as the first Republican president and so that was the spark as we as we've done in several videos we talk about it together and so the Republicans pretty much stay in power up until World War one that's when Wilson gets elected he's the first Democrat to serve I believe in between the Civil War and World War one Oh a long period and this you know this is the the business interest Party which is going to do very well in this time yeah okay so you're the Republic yeah and this period of industrialization that's the Gilded Age yep that's when you know you have the Carnegie's and uh you know so so okay into that period you see the swing back and forth in American history exactly the tree I mean this goes back to this politics and power fee right that you know sometimes it's like the the Jacksonian Democrats everyman very populist and it's it's Oh ten years we could go a little over this is fun we have these swings in you have these swings between you know kind of the ever ever you know the common man and more movements and maybe more business interests or economic growth yeah sometimes I'll say the system isn't democratic enough and then they'll say oh maybe the system's a little too democratic um so the Republicans except for this this moment with Wilson are in power until the stock market crash right this is a big hit for business yeah then you have FDR come in who maybe defines the modern democratic parties yeah exactly you know this is the New Deal this period of increased government work towards social welfare and the Democrats who you know want to spend money on social problem problems on social movements in general they pretty much stay in power until Nixon so there's a 30-year period where the Democrats are really defining world us politics it seems like something's in the air right now but it's fun to connect with everything it seemed like you have what part do you stand for transitioning a little bit right now yeah and I mean after that we we generally think of the modern era as being more conservative than this era that came before it right this is the time when labor unions are really strong and you know the government is spending a lot of money on social programs and kind of starting in the 1980s there's been a little bit of a walk away from and you have a little bit of a flop between the parties where that you have the the Republicans are a little a little bit more sympathetic to or the civil rights movement is gets a little bit more sympathy from Johnson's of the world from from the Democrats yeah this is a little bit confusing because there is a sort of a flip-flop of the donor of the parties especially the Democratic Party with business interests like I mean the business of economic growth and business that's kind of consistent with the founding of the Republican Party but the Democrats really used to be the party of slavery and later the party of Jim Crow yeah with the Great Depression and then later the civil rights movement the Democrats said you know if we want to get the economy back on track we're really gonna need to use this federal money and later said you know we should continue I gave a lot of power to the federal government I mean just going back to that whole you know states rights I mean FDR expansion of the federal government - yeah which was so fast and we could we could we have many videos on this for us I mean we could do a couple they would get old more they see there we could tackle a couple of questions you wanna do that Oh what do you all think okay versus a couple students of our okay all right sure that the question is how do we approach the long essay and just synthesis as a general skill and we have a sample long essay question if you want us to work on through that yeah lots of times ever right we're not going to write it we will speak to what can be written all right just what right here yeah by revolution one all right let's shake this one up I'm gonna have to use your own counsel on migration and culture and society well we're gonna make this available so people can and and I suggest everyone to take a look at these I mean Kim done an incredible job here because this really talks about all of the major themes that and these actually would be really good points to even bring up in the essay portion so really encourage you to to take a good look at this and I'm around you know I answer questions on Khan Academy I answer questions on YouTube so and Facebook so yeah if you have any other questions for us just let me know awesome so let's read this some historians have argued that the American Revolution was not revolutionary in nature support modify or refute this interpretation providing specific evidence to justify your answer so what would you do when you see that you have this blog space to fill up so I think um all of the essay questions are kind of going to be like this you know do you support modify or refute this interpretation so we have we have three ways we could go with this right we can say support it the American Revolution was not revolutionary we could say refute it I want to refute it yeah the American Revolution was super revolutionary or refute would be like or modified this is yeah ah this is a a terrible question here's the right question that's a little harder to do I don't know I I can't think of something off the top of my head that would do that yeah so support was like no it wasn't revolutionary modify was like it was revolution in some respects but maybe not in other respects for a few be like I was actually quite revolutionary exactly yeah say I'm gonna have a pen marker and sharpie yeah so but just a high-level thinking so we'll just view for you personally where do you feel I'm uh I'm personally my gut whenever I read this like no it is revolutionary I would totally go the other way I'm a negative man and either one would be okay as long as we back up all right as our points well so yeah I would say so the question that they're asking here for us is is a society before 1776 very different than the society after 1776 or after 1783 right so there are various things with that we could think about here we can think about politics right we just have been going through these names like is the political system different we could think about society now our social roles do economics yeah we can think about economic you know politics yeah um or military yeah so do all the same things of those so politics or culture would be another I don't know how you can think it wasn't revolutionary let's go get out ok no ticks politics yeah I mean the England at the time had some point at a parliament to stuff but it was still you know they had a king on their money and they but now you had you know you had Thomas Paine and the rights of man and you have and you have this little you know this colony and they're taking on the most powerful military in in in in in our Navy for sure prime military in the world and they're able to win and they and and it's all about rule by the individual and and these these these ideas that they resurfaced and and in a lot of ways perfected from the Greeks and the Romans but come back but thousands of years old like you roughly 15 out of 2,000 years later this is great because okay so you're now doing like the pro revolution yes you the anti revolutionary side I'm going to say that the revolution wasn't that revolutionary politically because the same people who were in power in the United States before the Revolution were the people who were in power after the really light after the Revolution but I would make that argument that sure like the year after like what this but this revolution and just so you know we did not prepare this completely improv right now but this these ideas are allowed when allowed over the next few hundred years all of this other stuff to happen you are making precisely Gordon woods argument so you are like brainstorming Gordon wood right now yeah well if it's true but but uh you know I think with the Revolution yet the next day might have not change but this was the spark that yes and actually almost immediately of the French Revolution which didn't immediately you know it became somewhat tyrannical but Napoleon and all of that actual even before Napoleon but it did spark this in modern times the spread of democracy but we not take for granted constitutional democracies this was it that's a revolution all right well then real me this Gordon wood how different was American society after 1776 than it was before well not right after okay not right after but once again because if the revolution didn't happen then once again you wouldn't have been able to have all of these not only do have a democracy and but this even goes to economics if the revolution didn't happen you would have had the big power England have all of this extra industrial might and all of this extra agricultural land but now you had an economic power that was growing in the next hundred years that was also a democrasy and so that combination and so though when you have a superpower here that's you know it's it's imperfect there's you know there's some parts that look a little bit hypocritical but for the most part it was true to to the you know the tenants and it became more and more true over time as continuing to all right so you're saying in the long term these social values came to pass I'm going to say in the short term I mean how can you have a revolution that says all men are created equal and not and still have slavery yes it was it was definitely not I mean revolutions are never in fact by definition I mean ok you can't point to a revolution that's like clean that like you know people storm the whatever and then you know then they put the King out of rule and then the next day everything's hunky-dory their revolutions are all I know it may be you know more history than I do but from what I know they're always messy and there's always a period where people are fighting and a lot of the people who had power before still have power but they they start of interesting conversations yeah but does that last for like eighty seven years four score and seven years of slavery after the Revolution I guess yes all right how about economics economics economic revolution that I would not say so much that's not that's not yeah I mean it's for example if you were to compare and that could be like a modified that that's maybe a point to bring up is in the 1800's economically the US and England were in some ways very similar you know they developed their part of the Industrial Revolution they were so if they were the same country not clear if they were that fundamentally different alright well I'm going to take the International view now and say in terms of revolutions if you compare the American Revolution and a french revolution economically I mean the French Revolution was a revolution of the people against the the monarchy right against the the wealthiest people well the United States doesn't change anybody's real well you're right that I do this was not an economic revolution the ekor I mean you know kinder pocketbook issues of taxation and representation was much more is what for Phyllis offered it was economic it up for everyone it wasn't one class versus another class while the French Revolution was like textbook but what the class is fighting fighting it out but I think I'm winning right now so you're going to need to provide don't think I don't think I really I think is very biased and and and in in this in this so let's see geographically it's unclear I I I think I think by becoming a nation the ideas of manifest destiny became if you're part of the British Empire you would have you know the Sun never sets on the British Empire they were already in India they're already in Africa there were you know there or starting to become be in Africa especially in 1800s and so you know there could have been argument that like oh well just an extension of this already vast empire while here it's like this notion of manifest destiny it's much more of a nationalistic thing right so it causes manifest destiny the other so it's a trance transformation of the American body politic yeah yeah and I might make the opposite argument that the American Revolution was terrible for Native Americans right I mean the British were the major power that we're defending the rights of Native Americans that's why in the war of 1812 the Native Americans are gonna ally with the British so when you argue I mean for better for worse that would be an argue that that was a change yeah so you can see it could go either way I mean and actually in a certain ways slavery probably would have ended sooner yeah if if we stay at a British colony I would say so because slavery was outlawed in England for and so yeah we're structuring in multiple ways to structure it is how do the world been different right the Revolution happened it which is a it's actually a fun thing I mean is a super fun thing and I mean just a you know obviously if we were doing the tough we would write it this way you'd write it out a little bit but these are how does it get you you you graded these things good great I would say that what you want to do here is use each of these big themes as your topic sentences so maybe you know if I were doing something like this I'm going to just write down some possible things I could talk about right how does the economy change how does the politics change and then make notes and decide which side you fall on and then use that as your thesis statement right to say that oh the American Revolution was super revolutionary because none of these major social changes could have happened down the line without it or the american revolution wasn't revolutionary at all because it changed nothing for actual people who live there stands still arguing for my fifties I mean this is why this framework is really bad because it when I first saw it I was like man maybe I can write like a sentence on this but then when you when you start to say okay we could talk about national identity which is kind of culture and we could talk about politics and power we could talk about work technology and exchange and economics you can talk about cultural society migration and settlement so when you have this framework and you know if you just know okay these are the dimensions I can talk about on pretty much any essay statement exactly no no listen you have a lot to write yeah consider these themes whenever you're thinking about writing an essay because they will kind of illuminate things for you about where things are changing and where things are staying the same and the the greater is unlike you are fairly impartial and they're not gonna write because as long as you are making a strong argument and you're providing evidence then they know that you're you know think of them like a jury that you're trying to Vince if you're a lawyer right you're making an argument and saying here's why I'm right and so what they're interested is are you convincing them not are you saying what I want you to say and how much do things like grammar and you know yes the understandable understandable yeah like spelling grammar you don't ding I mean be understandable but this made is with your ideas and I think you know when I took this exam more years ago than I care to I took em in for you um yeah I had this idea that the graders were like or I'm looking for all the things that they did wrong so I can mark them down but having graded it myself what I noticed was that we were looking for opportunities to give people points like the people who are grade this exam they are AP US history teachers they are college teachers and they want you to succeed so they're actually on your side so as much as time allows keep writing yeah because there's a lot to write about and you know I make sure you give context right like make sure you say who's doing something when and why because for example with you saying like what's one one thing with the Europeans changed about Native American culture and you respond disease right there's not enough there for you to say all right well we're and I should honor the edge of this and when I took it I wrote it out but can you make a table yeah right points on either side and then refer to I mean is that recommend oh yes that's totally recommended you get thirty five minutes to do this question and I would say absolutely use the first five to ten minutes just to make some notes in an outline for yourself I know but even the table itself could be part of your answer maybe not I mean I think they're looking for the thesis they're looking for the piece of statement hiring topic sentences definitely use something like this just destructor yes I get your thoughts in order all right we have a couple more we're probably close to out of time let's do the one oh where are we over we're over time you wanted one multiple choice just for kicks he wants let's do one multiple choice we're sticking around we're sticking around three for you absolutely worked up about how you cannot think that that was ready I'm just devil's advocate yes I will do this one and then call it a day okay so this is a typical multiple choice question for the AP exam and all of these questions they have either a set of quotes or graph or a political cartoon so they're never in the void they're always asking you to refer to refer to some information so then they'll be like two to four questions that are actually related to okay so let's just try to do this okay so first let's actually look at our graph yeah okay you look at the graph first I read the question okay I will I will look at this graph while you're reading this question the pattern depicted on the ground and I have not seen this question before this is we're gonna just give the raw how do you do it listen I'll get this wrong the pattern depicted on the graph from 1450 to 1800 all right that's the years here best serves as evidence of which of the following now I'm going to look at the graph before making choices so let's see number of Africans transported to the new world between 1450 and 1,900 pounds and that we see very few were transported prior to 1600 which is consistent to what you were saying it was a big settles kind of exploration and try to get riches and stuff then you have more in 1617 you start having permanent settlements right referencing I'm just thinking what I just learned from you yeah using the logic of the context yeah and then 1700s to 1800s you have a that's the peak of influx and this is the peak of kind of I'm guessing yeah settlement applause crazy plantations and especially in the south and then it dies off here especially because I mean actually before the Civil War the the importation stop started to slow down yeah and then after the Civil War was abolished so that's why you have it's okay so now I've I think I've you get the context yeah so the pattern depicted on the graph in 1450 1800 best serves as evidence of which of the following the replacement of indigenous labor and indentured servitude by enslaved Africans in new world colonies now that just doesn't feel right because indigenous labor we didn't talk about indigenous laborers being a major oh yeah let's see one thing I want to open indenture so of an indentured servitude yeah that's interesting one thing I want to point out here is that it says 1450 to 1800 oh okay not including this yeah well let me get this all wrong don't don't help me to the development of various systems of racial categorization in the now this doesn't refer to that that's definitely I can rule that out definitely rule that out the effectiveness of the abolitionist movement in Europe and the Americas so that could speak to this but they staying between 1450 and 1800 so we're we are not even looking we're not even looking at this so if you just look at that part you see this upward trend so that doesn't imply anything so let's cross that one out the susceptibility of enslaved population you world diseases no this doesn't say listen say whether people survive or not just saying he was coming so that's definitely not it and so the thing that I was about to rule out cuz I was like indigenous labor and I'll say I'm thinking or Native American rainberge which I'm not aware of being a major source of labor hmm like Mexico the Spanish she's a lot of is labor but okay you're right and this is to the new world required you are center but you're right I mean we do read about indentured servitude you get your trip to the new world but you have to work for seven years etc etc and but this is a good example because this is one where a didn't jump out at me in fact when I first read a I'm like yeah I don't indigenous labor but then these other three were way more wrong yes but the chart had very little to do with them right and it's best serves as evidence yeah so even if you're like man that's maybe the greatest thing is better than all the other choice so this is evidence that I'm doing this the first time yes anomaly on the AP American issue which of the following contributed most directly to the change in the number of Africans transfer transported to the new world after 1800s oh now we're talking about what contributed to the change you see this downward delta the emergence of a more industrial economy in Great Britain and the United States so well I mean they're talking about Great Britain we're talking about transportation to the new contribute most it to change it transport to the new world so in Great Britain industrialization I guess you're less these large agricultural plantations yeah okay I'll think about it the outlawing of the international slave trade by Great Britain in the United States that seems interesting I'll I'll kind of you know I'll star that one the increased resistance to slavery within African nations we didn't talk a lot about that and I don't remember so I don't this one doesn't seem to right the influence of major slave rebellions in Haiti and elsewhere now there were rebellions but that shouldn't impact the overall so and and just having a more industrial economy you still have large I mean it still very agricultural country at the time in the early 1800s so you know that might be more in the north and that's my wife rankly they were more on the abolitionist side so yeah the outlying of the international slave trade which makes sense you're right I'm right thank you all right well we're all done hopefully everyone enjoyed this any parting thoughts for the test takers don't stress right the test is not designed for you to know every little fact what it's designed to do is to test your kind of historical reasoning right do you have this general overall sense of what's going on and using that knowledge can you make an good guess I didn't guess hey do skew yes I deduce could I guess this is a deduction can you deduce the the correct answer so you know think about the large themes uh and don't sweat the details thank you thanks a lot good luck
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