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what I want to go over in this video is what Khan Academy is in its current form and where I see it going what I hope it will grow into and so most of you are probably already familiar with the video library that's available at Khan Academy org they're already about 1,400 videos covering everything from basic mathematics to college-level calculus biology chemistry differential equations there's even a piece on economics but I really see it growing well beyond the video library and I've already started working on the software piece this right here this this kind of map structure you see this is the Khan Academy knowledge map knowledge knowledge map and you can access it at Khan Khan exercises dot appspot appspot.com you just need a Google ID and you can log in it's completely free and I hopefully it will always will be and if you click on the little knowledge knowledge map tab you'll see something like this for yourself and this shows you essentially the current the current curriculum of the software now I want to be very clear the videos there's 1,400 videos far more extensive than the software piece the software piece right now because it frankly is more labor intensive or you know since I've been the only labourer maybe I should say since it's more Sal intensive than the video piece there's only about 70 software modules right now and this covers from basic arithmetic through about algebra 2 but the idea here is to start everyone at the most basic level a level that anyone can start at and this is you know this module right here is 1 plus 1 is equal to 2 or you know 2 plus 3 is equal to 5 and as they get streaks of 10 in a row right it keeps moving them up at their own pace to more and more advanced topics you know over here we have level 4 linear equation systems of equations multiplying expressions so on and so forth and just get an idea of what these look like and if you log in you can just click on the modules and start working on them but this is a screenshot of one of the modules this is a screenshot of multiplying decimals and the paradigm that I think this type of software introduces although it might seem very subtle I think it's quite transformational to how we traditionally teach and learn so the traditional model is you have a lecture you have a lecture that normally occurs while everyone's in a room together at some scheduled time then you have practice in the form of homework that normally goes on at home usually on your own and if you get stuck you there's not much help and you get very little feedback the book might have every other problems answer but you have no idea of why you got it right or wrong and then you have some type of assessment some type of quiz you maybe get 80 or 90% right on that quiz you are labeled a B student or an A student and then you move on to the next topic next topic and because of this structure and its really no individuals fault it's more mainly a byproduct of the system everyone has to learn at the same pace the lecture is 1 to 30 people at their pace it doesn't matter if half the class is lost or half the class is bored that's what everyone's getting and no matter how good of a teacher you are you have to cater to everyone so some percentage will be lost and some percentage will be bored and then no matter whether you get a 10% wrong or 20% wrong or 30% wrong as long as you are quote unquote passing you move on to the next topic and anyone familiar with a math or science knows that if you have some core weaknesses if there's 10% of exponent problems you didn't know how to do later on when you move to more advanced topics that's going to be a major hole in your foundation it's going to make it almost impossible to master more advanced topics so this is the traditional model what this software is advocating and or what maybe what I am advocating is a model where all of this is happening simultaneously in a very data rich environment so you start off with instruction that's the whole point of lectures but when you do it within this framework you're getting your instruction from the videos you're getting your instruction from the video so let's say you're seeing the multiplying decimals module for the first time in your life so you are right here right here on the knowledge map you've just gotten ten in a row right on level four multiplication so it is now suggesting that you work on multiplying decimals this will be orange in your knowledge map so you're seeing this for the first time you have no idea how to do it you can click on watch video and this window will pop up and you can watch one of well in this case the multiplying decimals video from Khan Academy or git will be pumped directly in and then once you watch it you can start doing some practice problems and once again the paradigm here is very different if you don't know how to do this particular problem you can click hint and it'll give you the exact steps step by step for this problem so when the person when the viewer first went here they just saw the problem and all of this highlighting and all of that that happened after they started clicking hint and I encourage you to experiment on it with it on Khan exercises appspot.com now once once you start getting good at it you don't move on after only getting you know ninety percent or eighty percent and then you know it labels you as a b-plus student or as an a-minus student this says I want you to keep doing these multiplying decimals problems and I the software will keep generating multiplying decimals for you even if it takes you a thousand problems until you get ten in a row ten in a row so the paradigm that or the idea that I'm trying to advocate is for you to not move on until you have complete proficiency in a concept and right here on the streak as you get problems right and you can try it out the Stars fill up until you get ten in a row once you get ten in a row it'll say hey you know what you're doing we're now we think you should move on to the next concept on the other area where this is kind of you know this is the user experience but behind the scenes here we have a super super data rich environment and just to give you an idea of the potential here you know all everything you're seeing this is already built and but I think this can all be taken to even another level this right here is data I get from YouTube that right there is data I get from YouTube but this really is on some level the educational holy grail this is the actual data on the Khan Academy balancing chemical equations videos and this is a video here but right here YouTube shows me the attention span as someone watches videos so this is attention this is attention and they're measuring it against the average YouTube video of this length so let's say at this is says seven minutes so it's seven minutes into the video I'm doing pretty well I'm still above the average there's always a natural drop off rate but my drop off rate is doing better and actually it improves relative to the average as we go further and further through the video so you can imagine the potential here you can keep recording videos and see which ones have the best audience attention and I've seen some of my videos where this graph looks more like this where the graph looks more like this and I can go back and say gee something must have happened right there in the video and maybe minute eight that caused people to drop off maybe I said the word orthogonal T without defining it or I skipped a step and equation and I can either annotate that video or I could rerecord the video so that the new version does something like does something like that so just just off of the viewer data off of youtube you can do tremendous things things that we're never possible in education before but when you couple that when you actually couple that with the exercises when you actually know when they watch the video in the context of what exercise how they did on the exercises before and after watching the videos how many times they clicked on hint then all of a sudden you can do far more powerful things so this right here is actual data collected for a teacher this is a daily spreadsheet that is automatically generated for a teacher using Khan Academy at a summer camp these are all of the students I've blurred them out for their privacy each column here is one of the exercises in the Khan Academy and green means that the student does work has already gotten ten in a row on that module purple means that they're working on it right now but it seems like everything is good red means that they're working on it but they've done an awful lot of problems without having gotten ten in a row yet so this might be a problem area and the model that I'm at least advocating is everyone works at their own pace and the at home and in the classroom using the software and the teacher gets these daily reports and it tells them look teacher everyone is doing fine everyone is progressing except for these two kids right here are stuck on level 2 division why don't you take them aside have a very focused 30-minute one to two session with them you know to a kind of a tutorial with them and then move on to the next two students there's a couple of students who are having trouble with level 4 subtraction so that way that the student is always being directly catered to and the teacher's time is always spent directly directly hitting pain points for the students and just to highlight the power at least in my mind of this asynchronous learning this is the actual data from that same cohort of students as they work through the summer camps through the summer camp but just to understand what this chart is showing this vertical axis right here is the modules that they completed and the horizontal axis right here is days on the summer camp the black line is the class mean so this thing this is saying five days into the camp the average student had completed 20 modules these green lines above and below that are standard deviation below and above the mean and then I've plotted some what I consider interesting students trajectories here I could plot all of the students here but would be a very messy graph but I want to show you in particular as one student right here and on day five if you were to do an assessment using a traditional learning model if you were to do an assessment on day five right here you would say that this student this student in purple that she is more than one standard deviation below the mean you would say that maybe she needs some type of remediation she is a C student or a D student maybe she shouldn't be in this class but when you do it with an asynchronous learning model you allow that student to work at their own pace you don't have to slow down the rest of the class for him or her and this was a her and it turns out that she just needed a little bit extra time on negative numbers this was a cohort of rising eighth graders everyone else it was a little bit of review for her she needed extra time on negative numbers and we were collecting data on everything each of these each of these columns represent a problem she did this right here this first column was the first problem she did she got it wrong that's why it's red and took her 33 or 35 seconds and the next one she got right maybe she guessed it maybe it was you know two positive numbers being added then the next - she got wrong then she got one right maybe she guessed who knows then this right here actually I don't plot it but this is actually where she watched the video that's why it took her so long but then after that she started to get some problems right that's what the blue bars represent and not only did they could she get something she got a few wrong here there but at the same time the time it took her to do problems also went down you see the height of these bars are going down and this is actually a distribution of the times took her so as you can see you can actually get granular data of what people's actual pain points are what a remediation they need without slowing anyone else down and then directly tackle that and you get all of the data on at the same time once she was able to get through this this one pain point not only was she not below the average but she was able to rock it forward after she got got through this and she actually at the end of this was actually only a month and a half she finished as a second or third best student in the class and just to give an idea you know these judgments that we place on students are so arbitrary this back here you might have called her a remedial student out here you would see wow she just she just rocketed straight through level three linear equations which are equations of this form right here which is really above her grade level and you say hey she's maybe a gifted students when you let every student work it at their own pace at their own time not pushing people forward before they're ready or holding people back you really do see amazing results out of out of students now everything I've talked about so far everything I've talked about so far we've talked about the video library we've talked about the video library we've talked about the exercises we've talked about the exercises and how that could be trans the combination here could be transformational for a classroom everyone working at their own pace and even if the software isn't being used there's actually been a few tea who've already emailed me that they've kind of flipped the model instead of instead of doing lectures in the classroom and homework at home they're now doing homework in the classroom and using the Khan Academy videos at home which makes a lot of sense because you do the videos at your own time you can pause repeat look up stuff you can review videos at your own pace at your own time as you need them and then you're in the when you're actually doing problems in the classroom when you're surrounded by your peers and the teacher who can help you along and really kind of give you assistance and feedback when you eat it so that's already happening even before the software but I think when you have the software it becomes even more rich especially with the data collection but there is a situation of what if you know one of these students who are getting stuck and let's say they're not working in the framework of us of a classroom that has already adopted this paradigm what do they do and at least my view point of the answer is that you have peer to peer instruction peer to peer peer to peer instruction peer to peer instruction so you've watched the videos we know you've watched the video that the software knows you've watched the video you've done the exercises we know that you've done so many that you're having a pain point here what we can automatically do is set up a peer to peer in instruction with some other teacher-student tutor it could be in the same city it could be on the other side of the planet and we could do it virtually the same way that I started off with my cousin's where you have a pen tablet you're doing this on a computer but you have some type of a internet telephone connection whether it's Skype or Google Voice or whatever else and you're using a shared whiteboard kind of something like what I'm writing on right now but it's live and in real-time and you could actually even record you could record the interaction one that's valuable from a safety point of view but it's also valuable to have this huge library of other interactions that maybe if I can't find a tutor immediately I can dig through the recordings of other people who've had the same problem and I can get my question answered and the power here is not only are you able to kind of leverage all of the the student body of this virtual Academy to teach each other but you also are doing it in a very rich data environment because you know what happens each of these in isolation I think is already a huge value add but when you do them together it becomes a super-duper value add because not only do you have the peer-to-peer instruction you use the exercises to figure out exactly what type of peer-to-peer instruction you needed you know who to pair someone with because you know maybe you know Sal is having trouble with level one exponents bill we already know has mastered level one exponents so let's set up that interaction and then you have data on before and after before and after so you will all you'll even be able to assess how good was that interaction you can have a qualitative rating from both the to tour and the tutee I guess you could say or from the student but you can also have a data on what happened before and after that interaction and is it statistically significant compared to other similar interactions when you couple this I really think you are approaching you are approaching the holy grail of education so this right here is the virtual school that I see Khan Academy growing into and obviously the these first two pieces this piece has been built to a large degree I intend to continue to build it and continue to add really all topics this is already started to be built but I envisioned right now it goes through algebra 2 if you look at the knowledge map I completely see more and more of these you know you could see physics problems budding off of this you could see calculus budding off of this you can see chemistry budding off at certain points you can see genetics problems budding off of this probability you can imagine right now there are 70 modules I imagine a world where you could have 500 or 5,000 modules so that piece can obviously built up you could have other types of exercises that are complementary may be immersive type exercises and then the part that I think has a lot of value that has yet to be built is really the peer-to-peer piece but all of the technology already exists today I think to do it now just to give I think a int of where I think the social value is here and I'm going to do a very quick back of the envelope calculation because think there's a huge amount of you know it I think it seems appealing to a large percentage of people but just to get an idea of how much how scalable how much leverage this type of a concept can have on how much social value can create let's just talk about the videos alone let's not even talk about the exercises or the peer-to-peer interaction let's just let's just talk about the videos only in English although they are already being translated into Spanish and Tamil and and and there's a group in Poland so they could very easily be translated into every major language in the world let's just talk about English let's say we we have about 500 million there's about 500 million English speakers worldwide that includes I think there's about 350 million native speakers and 150 million people who are speaking English as a second language and let's just say this is a back-of-the-envelope calculation let's say say that this is that 10% could potentially use these type of videos that they are at some point in their life where they want to learn maybe their teachers who want a new way to teach something or their people going back to college or they are you know your traditional K through 12 or college students so 10% of the population could stand to benefit so this is you can kind of view this as the market but I speak of this in kind of a social enterprise point of view as the market people who could benefit from it so we're already talking we're talking about 50 million I actually think this number is much larger because you should include parents and teachers and really anyone who wants to learn anything but let's just say 10% of the population so you have a 50 million addressable market and let's say that for whatever reason only 10% adopt the videos I'm only talking about the videos here so let's just say let's just cut that down so we're talking about 10% of the 10% addressable market of the english-speaking world which is really only 10% of the world so where I'm you know I'm I think making very conservative assumptions here so 10% penetration penetration into the market that only for whatever reason even though it's free and it's easily available and it's all you know it's it's it's probably the most extensive resource available let's say just for assumption only 10% adopted we're talking about five million learners on a regular basis using it and let's say that they each watch a video roughly a week so we're talking about we're talking about times let's say 50 videos 50 videos a year per person they're just watching one video a week the data I'm seeing right now is people are on average watching a video every three days so actually and some of them are watching two three videos a day but if we average all of the unique viewers out it looks like they're watching a video once every two or three days so once a week I think is a very conservative assumption remember we're only talking about the videos right now we're not talking about even the exercises of the peer-to-peer instruction or all of that so if you multiply that out you have 250 million video views views per year Khan Academy isn't there right now because it doesn't have quite that really that mind chair yet I don't think most people are even aware that it even exists but I'm talking about the reality where people do know it exists so you have 250 million video views a year we're talking about only the videos only in English we're making some conservative assumptions and let's say that a video view the social value of a video view let's say the social value so the social value let's say it's I don't know it's a dollar I'm just making an assumption here my personal opinion I think it's far more than that private tutoring and any of these topics can talk cost from anywhere from 10 to 50 dollars and this I think is frankly better than private tutoring my cousin's have even told me that I'm better on YouTube than I am live because it's a less stressful environment they can pause they can repeat but let's just say that the social value is $1 which i think is very conservative then the total social return that just the videos just the videos using these assumptions would produce just in English so the social return in this scenario would be $1 times 215 million video views a year which would be two hundred and fifty million dollars two hundred fifty million dollars annually annually I'm not doing some type of present value where I'm looking at all of the future value created over the next 25 or 50 years this is on an annual basis and this is using these conservative if you translate it into the top 10 languages you can multiply this number by 10 if you make this 10% into 20 percent you can multiply it by this by 2 it'll be five hundred million if you present value even this number you're going to get something in the billions depending on how you present value it in your discount rate and all of that you're going to get a number that's in excess of multiple billions of dollars and this is all in my mind for a very very very small relative investment to support all of this remember the social return is calculated just from the video views if you actually think about it replacing actual education you compare it to what's actually spent on a per pupil basis in the developed world you know the $10,000 for pupil then the numbers become really ridiculous but if you just look at the 250 million dollars all of this that's the return just on the videos but all of this could be built I think by a team of five to ten highly motivated engineers five to ten built and maintained motivated so five to ten engineers including myself so you're really talking about an operating budget depending on you know the scale you do it at of on the order of a million dollars of year the video is obviously I can keep going and I'm I'm I would pay myself far less than a million dollar so just there you're getting a huge social value but even here if you're looking at an operating budget of a million dollars a year you really are talking about something that has the impact to transform education on a worldwide basis and have a social return well well in excess of what I think of this is kind of the base case but even if this was the best case a million dollar a year getting a 250 million dollar a year a year payback is pretty tremendous and the last thing I want to highlight is that this is all evergreen this is all evergreen these videos and these modules they don't have to be changed every year math and science does not change that fast so once some of this once all most of this content is built out if I god forbid got hit by a bus tomorrow this social return will still exist it's not like as soon as these engineers disappear that all of this disappears as long as this is maintained by some skeleton crew you will still continue to generate this much in social return anyway I want to leave you there and hopefully that gives you a sense of what I see Khan Academy what I what it is today what I see it becoming and and and and I think a sense of the real value that this can have for the world