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Erikson's psychosocial development

Video transcript

now it's time to take a look at Erik Erikson's theory of a psychosexual development so if you remember he was the second theorist I had mentioned in the overview video so here is Erik Erikson and his theory was actually greatly influenced by Freud's theory but he emphasized the role of culture and society so culture and society played a role in his theory and another key difference between his theory theory and Freud's theory is that he suggested that there was plenty of room for growth and personality throughout one's life so this personality development spanned an entire life and not just childhood which is what Freud emphasized so Erikson assumed that a crisis can occur at each stage of development and that these conflicts involve differences between an individual and the needs of society so those were where needs were competing and successful completion of each of these eight stages so it's an eight stage theory successful completion at each of these stages can result in a healthy personality and acquisition of these basic virtues in this column which I'll also go through so these basic virtues are basically characteristic strengths which the ego can use to resolve future conflicts and failure to actually complete a certain stage can result in the reduced ability to move along two further stages and can lead to a more unhealthy personality and sense of self so let's go straight into the first theory of Erikson's first stage of Erikson's Theory so it's just simply stage one and it occurs during the first year of life so this crisis this stage the crisis that it focuses on is the idea of trust versus mistrust so what do I mean by trust versus mistrust so during this stage a baby 1 year old is pretty uncertain of how the world they live in so in order to resolve these feelings of uncertainty the baby looks towards their primary caregiver or their parents for consistent care and stability and if the child receives this consistency of care they're going to start developing trust and a sense of security and so this theory is the hallmark of this theory or the virtue is a virtue of hope because when you develop a sense of trust the infant can have hope that when new crises arise there is a possibility that people will be there as a source of support and failing to acquire this virtue can lead to the development of suspicion or fear and mistrust so that's the negative outcome fear and suspicion so as you can see this corner Erickson this develops within the first year of life so I'm moving on to the second stage this occurs in the second year of life and this crisis that characterizes this stage is autonomy versus shame or doubt so what is autonomy autonomy is independence and then we have doubt where shame so around eighteen months to the age of three children begin asserting their independence by walking away from their mother learning how to pick up which toy they want to play with making choices about what they want to wear what they want to eat etc so obviously the child is gaining a sense of independence and autonomy and Erikson says it's critical that parents allow children to do this it's critical that children are able to explore their limits of their abilities within an encouraging environment obviously and rather than putting on the child's clothes a parent should be supportive and have patience and allow the child to do it on their own and keep on trying until they succeed learning teaching the child how to ask for help when they need it so parents need to encourage their child to be independent but at the same time protect the child so failure is avoided so the hallmark of this stage the virtue achieved is a sense of independence or own personal will and a negative outcome that can occur if the child is overly criticized are overly controlled is that they start to feel inadequate and their ability to survive so they could start lacking self-esteem and start feeling shame or doubt in their abilities so those are the negative outcomes now the third stage is occurs between the ages of three to five years so in this stage children is certain themselves even more more frequently so the crisis here that is taken a look at is initiative versus guilt so during this period the primary feature involves the child regularly interacting with other kids at school so obviously play is central to this stage children are playing they're learning how to explore interpersonal skills they're learning how to initiate in plant activities so they're starting to feel more secure and their ability to lead others and make decision so Erikson said at this stage a kid will ask a lot more questions and so here they're virtually that they're gonna reach is purpose you feel they have a sense of purpose and what they do and the choices and decisions they make and if this tendency to ask questions and have curiosity is squelched so if a teacher or a parent or really criticizes and controls a child they start to develop a guilt so the child may feel as if they're annoying to other people and they'll start to act more as a follower versus having that self initiative and drive and purpose so too much guilt can make the child actually really slow and interacting with others and it can kind of inhibit their creativity but obviously this comes with a caveat because some guilt is necessary otherwise the child wouldn't know how to have self-control so they need to have limits that is that's important in this third stage so a negative outcome of this is having a sense of guilt or feeling inadequacy I think I spelled that wrong and adequacy there we go okay moving on to the fourth stage to the fourth stage occurs around the ages of six to twelve so around school age to puberty so here this is where teachers take an important role according to Erikson in a child's life so they're gonna start teaching specific skills and the child is going to work towards competence so the major crisis that's looked at here is industry versus inferiority so at this stage the child will gain greater significance and greater self-esteem and they're going to actually try starting to win approval from others from teachers from authorities by demonstrating specific competencies that they think are valued in society so they're going to start developing this sense of pride in their accomplishments so that is the virtue competence or pride just change my color there there we go so that's the main virtue at this stage and if the children or the child is encouraged and their initiatives are reinforced and reinforced they're gonna start feeling industrious and confidence gaining confidence to achieve their goals now if this initiative is not encouraged or if it's restricted then the child's going to start feeling inferior or doubting their own abilities and they may even not be able to reach their full potential so that is the negative outcome is inferiority as a result of not feeling like they have competence that society is demanding again at this stage some failure may be necessary so the child can develop modesty so like I said earlier up here there has to be some sense of guilt for the child to have control in their actions it's the same in stage 4 there has to be a little bit of some failure within limits so the child develops modesty and they don't feel over a competent so there has to be a good balance now moving on to the fifth stage this occurs between the ages of 12 to 18 so in adolescence so this is the transition from childhood to adulthood and this is probably one of the most important rules and Erickson's personality psychosocial development theory so here the child or teenager now is actually becoming more independent and they're trying to look at their future in terms of career relationships families whatever so they want to start feeling as if they belong to society and if they fit in so this is a major crisis looked at here is identity versus role confusion now in this stage the child has to learn the rules he'll occupy as an adult so he may or she may actually reexamine their identity to try to figure out who they really are and body-image plays a huge role in this because the body is changing during this time of age they explore possibilities and more based upon outcomes and they start to form this identity as a result of this exploration now failure to do so can result in things that the child may say like I don't know what I want to be when I grow up and this can lead to role confusion so the positive virtue that first comes out of this is fidelity or an ability to see oneself as unique in an integrated person as we're trying to identify who we are now the negative outcome of this results in role confusion obviously and it can also result in confusion of who one is it could cause rebellion and feelings of unhappiness so those are the hallmarks of a negative outcome at stage 5 now stage 6 we're moving into young adulthood it's around age 18 to about 40 young adulthood to adulthood so here the crisis that's being looked at is intimacy versus isolation and I will explain that in one second so in young adulthood we begin to share ourselves now more intimately with other people we're trying to find love so we explore relationships leading to longer term commitments and completion of this stage can lead to comfortable relationships in a sense of commitment safety and care avoiding intimacy avoiding this stage can lead to negative outcomes such as isolation or loneliness or even depression so here we're forming close personal relationships and this is characterized by love and the negative outcomes can form to an inability to form relationships so it could lead to obviously isolation and unhappiness the seventh stage occurs in middle adulthood so this is around ages 40 to probably retirement and here adults begin to establish or they already have an established career so they begin to settle down in the relationship begin make families the center of their lives and they develop a sense of being a part of this bigger picture so here the crisis is generation or generativity that's the deal with their generation versus stagnation so stagnation means feeling stuck as if you're not progressing so usually adults they feel as if they give back to society through raising their children or being productive at work becoming involved in community activities and organizations so here they begin to develop a sense of care for others they're looking out for the welfare of others and the negative outcome that can occur if they fail to achieve those objectives is that they start to feel stagnant they feel unproductive all right and the last stage of Erikson's Theory occurs from ages 65 and older until death so here are senior citizens and we tend to slow down our productivity we've accomplished a lot in life that we've wanted to or we may not have which could lead to negative outcomes as we'll see but now we're exploring life as a retired person so here the major crisis is integrity versus despair so obviously an older age were more wise during this time we contemplate back on our lives reminisce and people of this age start to feel as if their lives are productive or maybe unproductive so they may feel guilt about their past or feel as if they didn't accomplish something that they wanted to certain regrets or feel dissatisfied so first the main virtue is having that sense of wisdom but if we feel as if we haven't accomplished what we wanted to in life and we feel unproductive and that can lead to despair and dissatisfaction upon death so success in this stage will lead to wisdom and wisdom is what enables the person to look back on their life with a sense of closure and completeness and to also be able to accept death without fear so this is Erickson's map of our stages of psychosocial development throughout life and if you if you think about it each of these stages involves the culture and society with which we develop in and it occurs throughout our life