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Current time:0:00Total duration:7:45

Overview of theories of development

Video transcript

okay so you're probably looking at the screen and wondering who in the world are these four men that I have put on on the screen well these four men we're going to look at are very important in understanding theories of development so that's what we're going to talk about in this in this video are the different theories of development and it would be nice if I could spell it properly there we go okay so up here we have Freud over here we have Erikson over here is Vygotsky and last we have Kohlberg so development let's start off by defining what it is development is the series of age-related changes that happen over the course of a lifespan so people pass through different stages in a specific order and each stage builds on top of another and we develop capacities through those stages built upon the previous stage so these four men had four different theories of how we develop and the first we're going to take a look at is Freud Sigmund Freud so Freud proposed the psychosexual theory of development so let's write that down here so he was he was important in starting off the psychosexual theory that describes her personality develops during childhood it's also another key term he looked at how we develop through childhood and he actually believed that early childhood was the most important most important age or period in which most of our personalities developed he said that most of our personality is established by the age of five and he says that early experiences play a large role in personality development and that continues to influence behavior later in life and his theory was built upon five stages which we'll get into a little bit later but if these five stages are completed successfully the result is a healthy personality and certain issues if they're not resolved at a certain stage and we move ahead to the next stage then something called fixation can happen so that's another key term that we'll take a look at a little later so that's the psychosexual theory of Freud now the second key player or key person that we're going to look at was Kohlberg sorry not Kohlberg Erickson and Erickson talked about the psychosocial development theory so in this theory he proposed Erik Erikson proposed that personality development occurs through one's entire lifespan so you can already see how it's a little different from Freud who said personality most of its established in childhood so he believed that each stage of development again was focused on overcoming a conflict and success or failure in dealing with these conflicts at each stage can impact overall functioning of the person and he proposed a theory that had each stages which we'll take a look at a little later so in each stage people face new challenges and the stages outcome depends on how people handle these challenges the next person was led by kotsky who's a Russian theorist and what love said and developed was the socio-cultural cognitive development theory so socio-cultural now is heavily influenced by cognitive development and what Vygotsky believed was that children learn actively and through hands-on experiences so it's very it's an active process through which we through which we develop and its socio-cultural theory suggests that parents caregivers peers cultural beliefs attitudes and language are all responsible for the development of this higher-order function of learning and he said that a child internalizes the information they get from the interaction with others so he was all about how us as individuals are influenced by those around us and the culture around us and that that is that interaction is what is able to guide children in their own performance and in their own development and his theory stresses this importance of social interaction in the development of cognition so fun fact unfortunately Vygotsky died at the age of 38 so many of the parts of his theory were actually incomplete and the last theorist we're going to take a look at was Lawrence Kohlberg and he developed the moral development theory so he looked at how we develop our morals throughout life he focused on moral reasoning or why people think about think about the difference between right and wrong so right versus wrong he believed that moral reasoning depends on the level of cognitive development and proposed that people pass through three levels of moral development so his was three stages but each of these three stages was further divided into two stages so altogether there were six levels and it came up with this theory after he did a lot of research with groups of children so he would present these children with a bunch of moral dilemma situations and then after he would interview the kids to find out their reasoning behind their judgments in each of the scenarios so you'd ask them a bunch of questions and try to analyze how they came to certain conclusions and reasoning behind how they solved each of these scenarios so overall remember that Freud and Erikson looked at personality so they were focused on how personality develops versus Vygotsky and Kohlberg were interested in how our cognition develops so their theories are heavily heavily influenced by cognitive theories so this is a broad overview of the different stages of development from four main and different perspectives there are a lot of other and much many more perspectives but we're going to focus on these four and so the main takeaway from this is to keep in mind the similarities and differences as well as the focus of each of the theories and in the next set of videos I'll go into more depth into each one of these theories