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Freud's psychosexual development

Video transcript

alright let's dive right into our first theory of development we're going to take a look at Freud's psychosexual theory of development so here's Freud over here and he proposed that psychological development in childhood takes place in a series of fixed stages called psychosexual stages and he believed that life was built around this concept of tension and pleasure in that the buildup of tension could cause a lot of conflicts so this tension build up or fixation was due to this concept of libido now libido is a natural energy source that fuels the mechanisms of the mind and when this libidinal energy is stuck or fixated as we like to call it in this theory so that's a term you should get familiar with whenever you hear the psychosexual theory of development so fixation so when the fixation occurs it can have a lifelong effect well into adulthood because remember Freud Freud's theory stressed the importance of personality development at childhood so if a certain stage in fixation occurred in a certain stage in this childhood it could have a lasting effect well into adulthood so each of these stages is associated with a particular conflict that has to be resolved in order for the person to successfully advance to the next stage so Freud again stressed that the first five years of life are crucial to the formation of adult personality now this idea of libido and fixation is centered around different areas of the body at different stages of growth which is why he calls it psycho sexual development so you can remember the order of these stages by using this mnemonic that I came up with and it's called I'll just run through it it's old age parrots love grapes oops let's give ourselves a little bit more room over here there we go okay so old-age parrots love grapes and that's associated with each of the stages so the old stands for the oral stage the age stands for the anal stage the P stands for the phallic stage the L stands for the latent stage or the latent period and lastly grapes stands for the genital stage so old-age parrots love grapes oral anal phallic latent genital now I was talking about how this fixation of libido is focused on different parts of the body so depending on what stage were at there's going to be a certain fixation of this energy at a certain body part so when it comes to let's pick a different color okay so when it comes to oral the part of the body that the libido is focused on is the mouth or all four mouths the anal stage is anus pretty self-explanatory the phallic stage is the genitals and I'll go through and explain all this in a bit the latent actually doesn't have anything and the genital last stage is again the genitals all right so let's go through each of the stages so the first stage the oral stage and try to pick a different color again here we go okay so the oral stage is the first stage of personality development and it occurs between the ages of 0 to 1 years of age so there we go and this is when the libido is centered around the baby's mouth so the infant's primary source of interaction occurs to the mouth through the rooting and sucking reflex and obviously the mouth is vital for eating and the infant derives his or her pleasure from oral stimulation through activities such as tasting and sucking and because the infant is completely and dependent on their parents their caretakers who are responsible for feeding the child the baby also develops this sense of trust and comfort through this oral stimulation so we can talk about the major development over here as feeding now if there is fixation or conflict that occurs here through the weaning process so the baby has to learn to wean off in order to advance to the next stage so if there's a conflict in this process the child becomes less dependent upon the caretaker and Freud believed that an individual with a fixation at this stage could develop issues with dependency or aggression so later in adulthood we see an oral type of personality in people that smoke or bite their fingers or their nails or that suck their thumb so the adult fixation personalities or examples are of people that smoke or bite their nails or people that overeat all right moving on to the second stage so the second stage is the anal stage and that occurs between the years of one two three and four believe that the primary focus here was centered around the anus and in controlling the bladder and bowel movements so we can consider this toilet training so when the child gets older and starts to wean off from feeding in the oral stage it's going to start getting potty-trained so the major conflict is at this stage is toilet training where the child has to learn how to control his or her bodily needs and this leads to developing a sense of control in accomplishment and independence so parents who utilize praise and rewards for the child using the toilet are encouraging positive outcomes and helping the child feel capable and productive and for believe that positive experiences in this anal stage can help serve as a basis for people to feel competent and productive and creative adults however not all parents take an encouraging approach to potty training so if any fixation occurs in this stage that can lead to problems as an adult and Freud said that adults who have fixation at this stage could possibly have problems with orderliness and messiness so these are attributes of the adult fixation moving on to the third stage the phallic stage so this week ours between three and six years of age and it's focused the genital area is the focus of the libido so at this age children are beginning to discover the difference between the males and females and here Freud came up with two important terms so he believed that boys actually begin to view their fathers as a rival for their mother's affections and he called this the Oedipus complex which describes the feelings of wanting to possess the mother in the desire to replace the father this is what little boys um go through and the same thing occurs for females towards or young girls towards their fathers which you term the Electra complex so that's the major development here is the is being able to resolve this Oedipus and Electra complexes and usually this is resolved through the process of identification where the child starts to understand and develop similar characteristics of their same-sex parents so they look up to fathers little boys will look up to their fathers and little girls up to their mothers however if there's a fixation at this stage that can transform into adulthood and cause sexual dysfunction if this isn't resolved the fourth stage is the latent period so this is usually between 6 to 12 years of age and there's really no focus of libido over here and this is a period in which 12 being puberty so 6 to puberty so this is the time of exploration in which the sexual energy this libido is still present but it's not really focused on one area it's being directed into it's not focused on one area of the body rather it's being starting to be directed into other areas such as intellectual pursuits and social interactions and children developing new skills so this stage is really important in the development of social and communication skills so we can say the socialism aspect and the development of new skills so this begins around the time that children enter school and so they become more concerned with the peer relationships hobbies and other interests and play between children starts to become largely confined to children of the same gender and any fixation at this point doesn't really develop into an adult fixation and the last stage is a genital stage which occurs from the age of 12 and above so here again the focus is back on the libido and that's because the individual starts developing strong sexual interest so they're starting to reach sexual maturity and um during this stage they develop the sexual maturity towards the opposite sex that lasts well into their life well through life till till death so in earlier stages the focus was solely on individual needs but in this stage there's interest in the welfare of others so if all stages were successfully completed then the person should be sexually matured and mentally healthy so the adult fixation example is since this is the last step there really isn't any adult fixation because it's under the assumption that all these other stages were completed successfully so we can just say the person is mentally healthy that's what Freud said so if all the other stages have been completed successfully the individual should now be well balanced warm and caring and so the goal of this stage the general stage is to establish a balance between the various life areas and so this is Freud's theory of psychosexual development in a nutshell