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Current time:0:00Total duration:21:52

Video transcript

let's review a little bit of what Napoleon was up to going into the War of the third coalition which really does establish Napoleon as the dominant figure in Europe so in 1799 he takes power takes power first with two other councils but then he declares himself first Council so he takes power he becomes first betted capital letters first council then in 1802 actually before I get to 1802 let me say it would either 1800 in 1800 remember when he took power we were still in the war of the second coalition we talked about that a little bit Napoleon or France had lost ground and they had lost a lot of what they had gained in the first coalition in Italy the Austrians had taken it back so Napoleon decides to take charge cross the Alps this is a picture of him this is Napoleon crossing the Alps Napoleon crossing crossing the Alps leading the troops into the Alps to take back what he felt needed to be taken back from Austria and then we learned in the last video that that essentially is what ended the first coalition so in 1800 he takes back takes back or leaves to take back Italy leaves to take back Italy and when we talk about Italy we're really talking about the Kingdom of Italy which was northern Italy we're not talking about the kingdom of Naples which was southern Italy or the papal States I couldn't draw it let me show you that if we go all the way down here you'll see when people talk about the Kingdom of Italy in this period of time they're really talking about this region up here which is really northern Italy the papal states are right here and then you had your kingdom of Naples down there compared to modern Europe the two countries that we associated with Europe today that really didn't exist in a unified form and in the early 1800s it's were Italy and Germany they were really just broken up into a bunch of kingdoms and as I mentioned before Germany at this point that that confederation of kingdoms was kind of referred to as the Holy Roman Empire where the king of austria was referred had the title of Holy Roman Emperor but he didn't necessarily he didn't control the Holy Roman Empire in a very in a very centralized fashion it was actually controlled by a bunch of smaller kings well anyway let's go back to Napoleon so that's him crossing the Alps in 1801 hundred that ends when he takes it back he defeats Austria that is essentially the end of the second coalition we learned that in the last video 1801 you had your Creedy of Luna Vil end of second coalition they don't have a treaty with Great Britain until the next year really just out of attrition but that doesn't matter it's a very short-lived treaty and then in 1802 1802 before we start talking about the third coalition Napoleon gets the Constitution Constitution of the Year ten past and why did you say year ten remember they had this whole revolutionary calendar going so this was in the Revolutionary countess was the tenth year of the revolution but what's really relevant from Napoleon's point of view is article one nay it says the French people name and the Senate proclaims Napoleon Bonaparte first Council for life first Council for life so if you want to view this as kind of Legally giving Napoleon you know almost a king like status in terms of him being the you know it writes it in words that he will rule France for the rest of his life then we get to 1803 actually before I get to 1803 remember what's happening at the same time here you had your you had your revolution in Haiti revolution in Haiti which if you remember from those videos Haiti was the most profitable slave colony in the world once the slaves revolted got their freedom all of a sudden not as profitable to the France as it was before and remembered the whole French Revolution started off because France was broke so Napoleon tries to reinstate slavery that essentially backfires on him dessaline catches wind of it at him and the other revolutionaries so they essentially start antagonizing Leclerc even more Leclerc and the the French occupiers get ravaged by yellow fever and dessaline is a very aggressive general so he starts losing Haiti you have Rochambeau if you remember from those videos he's this you know hugely brutal figure who takes over after Leclerc but you have this revolution in Haiti and you can kind of say there start starting to lose Haiti lose Haiti and at the same time and this is 1802 and then as we're entering into 1803 1803 Napoleon begins to realize that that Great Britain controls the Seas Great Britain dominant dominant Navy and because they're losing Haiti which is really their main profit center and Great Britain is dominant Napoleon essentially gives up on North America Napoleon Napoleon gives up gives up North America so outside of Haiti which was this major profit Center for the French Empire they also had the territory of Louisiana which is essentially the middle one third of what what we now consider to be the United States and Napoleon figures out gee you know Great Britain has a dominant Navy I'm giving up on hey I'm probably going to lose it anyway to dessaline let me just give up on the entire continent if I don't sell Louisiana either Great Britain or the United States we'll probably be in a good position in a good position to take it from me so he decides to sell he sells Louisiana he sells Louisiana so just as someone or as an American and especially an American who was born in Louisiana it's fascinating the the chain of events that led up to this because when you learned it from an American history point of view you just say hey Thomas Jefferson he was able to get Louisiana for fifteen million dollars you know why would someone sell it all of a sudden this huge amount of territory and the reason is is because Napoleon figured he was gonna lose it no matter what Great Britain had this dominant Navy and at the same time he had nothing else to protect in the area the other major valuable asset there was Haiti so a combination of Great Britain having this Navy and the slave revolt in Haiti ends up with the United States being able to acquire what's now the middle one-third of the continent you can kind of wonder gee if they never did that would they have ever gone on to capture you know the entire west coast so these small little things in history and I wouldn't necessarily call these little things but they lead to very tremendous changes in in our modern world anyway enough about that so he sells Louisiana Great Britain has the dominant Navy at first Napoleon was thinking he was amassing troops up here he was thinking about an invasion of Great Britain but more and more dawns on him that Great Britain is a dominant Navy Great Britain I think starts to feel a little self-confident and they don't like all of the gains that Napoleon has gotten in the last two wars so Great Britain declares war in 1803 in 1803 in May 1803 in May Great Britain or me I could say United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland the same thing UK declares war you could view this as the beginning of the war of the third coalition but it's not a coalition yet it's just the United Kingdom or suggest Great Britain and it really gets heated in 1805 in 1805 everyone else jumps in and now we're talking about a real coalition now Great Britain is Great Britain is joined by Austria and Russia and you know Austria all the time and every one of these coalition's they lose territory to France and especially Napoleon they just want to get revenge United Kingdom kind of senses that they control the water they want to get revenge Russia doesn't like this upstart Napoleon so they all jump in and so there's two interesting angles of the War of the third coalition let me write let me write this this is right here this is the third coalition and there were other people who jumped in but these were the major powers so this right here is the third coalition so the first thing that happens all right it really they all the two almost happened simultaneously in October of 1805 in October of 1805 the French Navy gets destroyed by the British in the Battle of Trafalgar this is Trafalgar it's actually written here Felger and they get destroyed by Napoleon's good old friend Admiral Horatio Nelson Horatio Nelson so this guy was definitely a thorn in Napoleon's side Horatio Nelson he destroyed Napoleon's ships in the Battle of the Nile that stranded their troops in Egypt and now he comes and he he strikes a essentially destroys the French Navy at the Battle of Trafalgar and this is an image of it and I guess the only the only redeeming fact of this battle for Napoleon was that near the end of the battle Horatio Nelson actually gets striked but gets stricken by a bullet and he dies at Trafalgar dies at Trafalgar so this really establishes the Royal Navy was all the British Navy was already dominant destroying the French Navy which was the only Navy that could in some way compete on any level destroying them at Trafalgar really established British domination of the Seas this is actually an image of the Battle of Trafalgar this is the battle right there you know bunch of ships just shooting at each other you can't really make out what's happening and just to connect that to modern-day Great Britain or the modern-day London this right here is an image of Trafalgar Square it is named after the Battle of Trafalgar which established Britain is dominant in the seas that is Trafalgar Square in London Trafalgar Square and if you go there you will see Nelson's column this is Nelson's column right there named after Horatio Nelson Nelson's column and at the very top of it there's a little figure or it's probably pretty large but little relative to the column of Horatio Nelson himself so that was a little bit of a side but this occurred during the War of the third coalition so Napoleon's Navy is destroyed but he doesn't give up he's just like okay oh well I can't do much beyond Europe but in Europe Europe I can still do a lot of damage so what he does is he takes his troops that you know he had given up on actually attacking Britain by sea he realized that he could never realistically do that and let me show you the troop movements that were going on at this time so here we had troops here that he had given up on actually attacking Great Britain and what he does is he meets the Austrians so the Austrians are amassing their troops here they actually thought that there was a possibility that the main campaign would go in Italy so they actually focused most of their troops there that we'll see it was a major mistake but they have troops in what we can kind of view as southern what is now southern Germany near the Black Forest and then they also amassed some troops near Italy and then the Russians were coming up behind they weren't able to meet and we're dealing with the fall this is now September October of 1805 and the Russians were back here trying to bring their troops to assist the Austrians in meeting Napoleon and what Napoleon does you know all of these you know you it's it's it's always unclear how much of it was tactical genius versus pure luck because they didn't have satellites they didn't know where the other troops were they didn't necessarily know exactly what's happening on a minute-by-minute basis like armies do today but what happened and it's it's it's a I guess the tremenda it's it's one of the pivotal battles in European history is that Napoleon meets the Austrians at the bat at Ulm let me draw it on this map right here at ohm so on this map and just do a very general you know this is Napoleon meeting the Austrians right here at Ulm there's actually a whole campaign of Ulm several battles but it was a decisive victory at ohm and the crux of that victory was that Napoleon was able to fool the Austrians and so this is a zoomed in version of what was going on here this is France this is the Black Forest this is Austria right there blue is Napoleon troops red are the Austrian troops and you saw Austria had amassed most of their troops on the Italian front so here in the Black Forest you have your Austrian troops what Napoleon did is he had general Murat make it look like the main force of the French were coming straight from the west and they did that by having cavalry essentially giving the appearance of a major force coming from here so they came so the Austrians were thinking gee okay this is the direction that we're going to face our main our main antagonism from but at the same time the bulk of Napoleon's army remember he doesn't see exactly how many people are here they just made it look like this is the bulk of the army but the bulk of the army actually did what they call a wheeling maneuver where they went around they went around the Austrian army and they were able to do it much faster in a much more nimble way than anyone would have predicted because they essentially didn't have to carry as many supplies they were doing this during the harvest season and this was by design if you capture enemy territory during the harvest season and these are things that you usually don't think about when you learn about military battles but you've got troops you've got to feed troops if you're if if they if they can't capture food from the land then you're gonna have to carry supplies with you and supplies are heavy and it slows down your army but if you do the attack during the harvest season you don't have to carry food you don't don't carry as much food you can just take it from the farmers that you pass by they're harvesting food as you pass by you just take it you can be fast and nimble and he essentially went around the army and it was able to attack the Austrians from this direction and then essentially destroy them and this is why I hinted in the last video that Napoleon starts to view himself as invincible and this was before the Russians could come to actually reinforce the Austrians so they did it by being able to do it so quickly they were able to just only tackle the Austrians so it was a decisive victory at Ulm let me go to the painting right there this is a painting of the surrender at Ulm the surrender at home and then the combined Russian and Austrian forces they they essentially you can kind of view they regrouped but they they they remit Napoleon's forces after all and another several weeks at Austerlitz at Austerlitz and once again Napoleon just routed them and there's always a debate some of it was might have been tactical genius some of it might have been pure luck but after routing them at Austerlitz so this is this is Austerlitz and taking so much I guess both in terms of casualties and and prisoners from the enemy without incurring so much themselves this really this really was the high point in terms of a battle for Napoleon this was the high point Australis is what really convinced Napoleon that he is truly truly a military genius and that's not saying that he's not but it was such a route that he started to imagine that he's on some level invincible and so the outcome this essentially ends the war and the war of the third coalition ends third coalition and with that ending Austria had to give its its territory that it had gotten in Italy so Austria had to cede had to cede the territory that it had in Italy some of the territory that it had in Bavaria and from I guess a just a general point of view this was historically significant because until this point in time this whole area was called the Holy Roman Empire with the king of Austria calling himself the Holy Roman Emperor even though he didn't have direct control over all of these Germanic regions after this is let me go back up here this is in 1805 or we can even say we're entering 1806 but in late 1805 with the end of the third coalition now us the Austrian King no longer calls himself the Holy Roman Emperor he gives up the title and this region this region right here this region right here is no longer called the Holy Roman Empire it is called the Confederation of the Rhine Confederation of the Rhine and it's essentially under the protection of Napoleon and this is the first time we were starting to get to a point Germany won't be unified for another 60 or 70 years but we're starting to get to the point that you know the German nation it's escaping from the bounds of being the Holy Roman Empire and so you know it's getting in that direction so the Holy Roman Empire is gone the German France gets significant territory from Austria once again you know Russia on some level is just humbled a little bit and then we end in 1806 or at the end of 1805 with France dominant and while all of that was happening it was really in 1804 when France was only at war with Great Britain the whole alliance hadn't formed yet in 1804 in December and this is relevant and it's a peek into his ego so this is the year before Austerlitz in 1804 Napoleon declares himself or he crowns himself Emperor Napoleon crowned himself Emperor and this is a picture of him as Emperor and after this point instead of being called Napoleon Bonaparte he is called Napoleon one Napoleon one and the idea of crowning yourself Emperor you might say hey you know what's the point you already were counseled for life you have power for your whole life but once you other than you know you get this neat title Emperor which probably feeds your ego quite well but beyond that this essentially establishes a dynasty it's now says you know I'm not just a first Council I am I am the Emperor I am Napoleon one and it had and it implies that his descendants will continue to reign over the French Empire so on some level he kind of destroys the notion of Republic so we're ending the third collation the third coalition with France's dominant France is dominant in Europe it's gotten all of this territory mainly mainly from Austria the Holy Roman Empire no longer exists it's now the Confederation of the Rhine Napoleon after Austerlitz thinks that he is invincible and he also is now Emperor so he has all of these you know his visions of grandeur coming true