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Current time:0:00Total duration:16:22

Video transcript

in the last video we saw Napoleon's army get decimated especially as they tried to retreat from Russia the numbers I threw out in that videos he started off with on the order of 450,000 soldiers under his command and that when he retreated it was on the order of 10,000 soldiers I just want to take a little aside here these numbers aren't firm historians aren't even sure on the exact numbers and sometimes you'll see accounts of 500 to 600 thousand entering and 30 to 40,000 leaving I went with these numbers just because I'm Menards map these were pretty close to those numbers right here is 400 22,000 leaving he has 10,000 right there but I just want to make sure you realize that these aren't exact numbers and depending on I guess how you account for his troops whether you're talking about troops directly under Napoleon's command whether there are troops that are directly involved in the offensive invasion of Russia or they're just troops that are maybe supporting it you're going to get different numbers and depending on whether you view you know troops and how you count the casualty so it's all about how you account but needless to say his the the French Grand Army was decimated after invading Russia and I even told you at the end of this video that after that the rest of Europe the these the other countries that kept forming and reforming coalition's against Napoleon began to smell blood so you already have you could already view the invasion of Russia as the beginning of the sixth coalition you already had Great Britain Great Britain throughout this entire time period throughout the Napoleonic Wars was and even during the French Revolution was in a constant state of war with the French and Napoleon obviously you have Russia now Russia now is also going to is also a a belligerent is also an antagonist against Napoleon they you know just because he retreated doesn't mean the war with Russia is over Prussia had been humiliated multiple times by Napoleon and now they jump they jump on the bandwagon after seeing after hearing about Napoleon getting decimated and so they a combined Russian and Prussian forces in age Napoleon but as as much as Napoleon's forces seem to have gotten decimated so if you look at that Menard map up here that we went over in some detail in the last video that covers right here the invasion of Russia started right about here and it went right about in that direction right there so Napoleon he's now retreating back and you might say gee he only has 10,000 or 20,000 or 30,000 troops that's nothing he's just going to be you know now put out very quickly by the combined Allied forces but Napoleon as you know we kind of say we're regardless of what you think of him as a person he was no dummy and he was good at raising forces and he was a very very very good military tactician he was very quickly able to raise to take his 30,000 soldier army get it to 130,000 it eventually he's able to get it to 400,000 although this force right here it's not going to be the same quality of four hundred thousand as the four hundred thousand that he might have had say entering the Russian campaign and there are other troops also that were allied with Napoleon German troops from the Confederacy of the truck of the Rhine that were sympathetic to the French Empire but once again they weren't as disciplined or under as a direct control of Napoleon but it's neat you know needless to say he was able to very quickly very quickly get up to some reasonable force that could maybe maybe withstand a sixth coalition but the sixth coalition was much larger it's on the order of so depending on the account you look at the sixth coalition they amassed forces mainly in what's now Germany but at that time the Confederation of the Rhine and before that the Holy Roman Empire of on the order of 1 million troops not 1 million dollars 1 million 1 million soldier so even though Napoleon was able to raise a force he was still outnumbered in the in what's now Germany or in the Germanic kingdoms he was still outnumbered by a factor of 2 to 1 but despite that the first several engagements with the combined Russian and Prussian army Napoleon was victorious or I shouldn't say the victorious because that implies too much he won those Adil's and these are at louts in louts in louts in at bouncing and then at Dresden he had a very significant victory Dresden and these are all right about here just so you have a sense of the geography you can actually see Dresden on the map there and after these defeats the the the coalition said gee you know this Napoleon character even though we outnumber him even though he he had to kind of very quickly get these troops he's a really good military tactician and he's still kind of kicking our butt on the battlefield they then issued what's called the let me write this down the TRACON burg plan tracking bird flying although it's not clear that they really had to the track and berg plan which essentially says try not to engage forces that napoleon is in command of directly try to engage his people that napoleon has had to delegate to his marshals the other generals so don't engage Napoleon one day I'd like to make more detailed videos on the actual kind of you have to say the actual genius of Napoleon on the battlefield and go battle by battle and see why people consider Napoleon to be a great military commander but his enemies definitely appreciated the fact that despite being outnumbered he was very tricky and very wily and was always able to kind of snatch victory from defeat so they had this plan to say hey let's just not engage in a bullion we have so many troops let's just try to incur losses on the French on other commanders other than Napoleon but needless say they hugely they hugely outnumbered hugely outnumbered the French all of the fighting was going on all of the fighting was going on in this general area at the time and at Leipzig and just so you get a sense of time remember the the invasion of Russia was at the end of 18 so let me write this down so the Russian invasion so Russia I'm just in another color do it right here so the Russian invasion that was at the end end of 1812 that was really kind of the beginning of winter in 1812 that really decimated Napoleon's troops then in then we go to 1813 you're looking at louts inin bouts in lout sin and bouts in that's in may May of 1813 so after the that winter that gave Napoleon some time to get his troops together and things happen slower this day and age people didn't have perfect intelligence in terms of what was going on on the battlefield and it actually took time for just information to travel in and for armies to travel they were traveling mainly on foot at that time and then August 1813 August August you had Napoleon's significant victory at Dresden at Dresden but then finally 1813 1813 in October and at this point the coalition had convinced Austria to also join in so this is kind of the ultimate coalition if you look at most of the coalition's that they seldom had both Austria and Prussia and Russia and all of these guys but now they're all piling on so now you have Austria Austria is part of the coalition and Sweden and of course you can't forget what's happening in the Iberian Peninsula you have all of the rebels in Spain and Portugal so you pretty much have every major power in Europe is now allied against Napoleon and in October of 1813 especially the Austrians Prussians and Russians they meet him at Leipzig they meet him at Leipzig which is right over here and at Leipzig they outnumber him two to one and they were able to take care of him and force him to retreat so then Leipzig happens first really major defeat this is actual an image of the Battle of Leipzig they call it the Battle of the nation's battle of Nations because so many people were so many belligerents were involved in this battle people estimate that there were six hundred thousand six hundred thousand soldiers involved four hundred thousand on the side of the sixth coalition 200 thousand on the side of Napoleon and they estimate on the order of a hundred thousand dead dead or wounded so this was a major major super bloody battle and it forced Napoleon to retreat so he had to retreat from Russia before and now he's retreating from the Confederation of the Rhine which was essentially french-controlled territory so Napoleon is really on his heels he now is going to defend France and now remember at the same time of this you had you had all of this stuff going on in the peninsula yet Arthur Wellesley you remember him right here that's Arthur Arthur Wellesley he's the British general leading you could view them as the rebels in Spain and Portugal at the end of 1813 he's winning a series of victories against the French and he's pushing into France this is the Pyrenees Mountains right here he's crossing he's he's winning a series of battles and the Pyrenees and then in the last ditch effort in Napoleon once again he's hugely outnumbered he starts he engages his enemies in battles in northeast France right around that area and there's actually a period there's the six-day campaign and this now where you are in 1814 so that was Leipzig was at the end of 1813 he retreats an hour in 1814 and the beginning of 1814 in February you have the six-day campaign six-day campaign and this was kind of Napoleon's final shot at really showing his military genius despite the fact that he was hugely outnumbered there were four significant battles where he was essentially able to at least in those battles rout the coalition despite being hugely outnumbered so he kept showing his military genius but at some point the numbers just became overwhelming and the French troops just couldn't handle the coalition especially being decimated after being decimated Russia and then using significant troops even in some of their victories in what what is now Germany or the Confederation of the Rhine then and then the Allies the coalition eventually in March in march of 1814 March the sixth coalition or we could say the coalition marches into Paris they march into Paris and this right here is an image of the Russians marching into Paris Russians march into Paris around the time around March of 1814 but Napoleon didn't want to give up in April in April Napoleon's telling his generals let's go let's go retake Paris but finally the generals are ready to give up on the Polian and they refuse to follow him and Napoleon says hey you know then I'm going to tell the troops to follow me and then they just like what you could try but they're not going to follow you so they essentially don't agree to do anything that Napoleon wants forcing Napoleon and you know it was going to happen one way or the other this way is just less bloody in April of 1814 super important time in history Napoleon is forced to abdicate Napoleon is abdicates and not only does he abdicate he's you know I won't maybe I'll do a future video on it but he also has to rescind any claim that any of his his is is you know his son or any of his future was so not the word ancestors what's the opposite of ancestors descendants any of his future descendants might have claimed as Emperor France or or king of France so he's forced to abdicate future super important time 1814 so if you think about when Napoleon ruled remember he had the whole he was able to take power at the end of 1799 so it's been on the order of 13 or 14 years where Napoleon has just been the absolute ruler of France and have been able to really kind of wreak a lot of havoc on Europe and now it all comes to an end and we'll see it's kind of temporary now but it's we're getting near the end of of hearing about Napoleon they force him to abdicate by the Treaty of Fontainebleau Treaty of Fontainebleau Fontan blue and they exile him to Elba so this is just you know where Elba is a little island off the Italian coast right here this is Elba this is where Napoleon was forced to stay doesn't seem like that bad of a place and they actually let him keep the title of Emperor and they allowed him to rule over Elba and he was actually able to do some reasonably constructive things with the island you're gonna see he leaves the island very shortly but it wasn't that bad I mean you know and in modern days if someone was indirectly responsible directly responsible for butchering millions of your civilians or soldiers you wouldn't send them to a nice you know a place with a nice climate didn't give him a nice house like this and allow them to actually rule over the island but I think at this time all of these generals and Kings they all viewed them as you know they all they all had they all viewed each other as gentlemen and they never wanted to be too too vicious to each other just in case the things were to come back around to them I guess but he got exiled to Elba in as I just said was it April of 1814 and then the coalition we'll talk more about this they put louis xvi you remember louis xvi with the whole French Revolution and the estates-general they put his younger brother they restore him to the crown they were this is right here is Louie this is louis xviii XVIII this is louis xvi younger brother the younger brother they make him King of France so I had all that business about the French Revolution then Napoleon comes to power and all these the rights of man and all that when everything said and done they put a king back in power this guy with the satin robes again doesn't look too different than his older brother and just in case you're wondering you know his older brother is Louis Lee the 16th he is louis xviii who was Louis the 17th this is Louis the 17th right here that is Louis the 17th Louisa 17 this is Louis the 16th son he was actually next in line to the throne before his uncle or Louis the sixteenth younger brother Louis the 18th but he died he was kind of you know while he was in prison if you are royalist you would have considered him king after the after the beheading the decapitation of his dad and actually there's a hugely fascinating story here where people they say that he died in 1795 but many many people think that he escaped and was labeled to live a normal life and you know who knows what but needless to say he wasn't anywhere to be found so they made louis xviii louis xvi younger brother king of france but we're going to see this isn't the last we hear of Napoleon