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Current time:0:00Total duration:16:18

Video transcript

where we left off in the last video Napoleon was doing pretty well in 1804 just as a bit of review he declared himself Emperor Emperor Napoleon Napoleon the first and then the whole last video was about the third coalition that formed in 1805 and we saw that at the end of 1805 after the battle of Austerlitz Napoleon was able to crush the third coalition crush the third coalition which was mainly made up of Russia and Austria this is all review we saw this in the last video Russia Russia and Austria and the big byproduct of that other than the fact that it just made everyone think Jesus Napoleon guy he's pretty formidable is that it ended the Holy Roman Empire which you remember is neither holy nor Roman nor an empire it was really just a collection of german-speaking states but it ended it ended the official Holy Roman Empire Holy Roman Empire and Napoleon felt so good about himself at this point especially after crushing the the Austrian and Russian forces at Austerlitz that he had the Arc de Triomphe which if you go to if you go to Paris right now it's one of the things you should see he had this built and now it's to commemorate all of these soldiers who have died for France but it was originally built by Napoleon to Orca or it was commissioned by a Napoleon to celebrate his victory at Austerlitz so this is the arc arc D my spelling is always a little weak but it's especially weak on I'm spelling something in French Arc de Triomphe and that's right there so Napoleon was was doing pretty well now on the other side of the equation you could imagine that the other major powers of Europe were kind of licking their wounds they were they weren't sure what was going on and we were starting to feel threatened and in particular this guy started to feel especially threatened this is Frederick this is Frederick Frederick once again my spelling is not the strongest especially when I'm doing something in German Frederick will Wilhelm the third it actually took me a long time to realize that Wilhelm and William are the same names and William is just the English version of it but this is Frederick Wilhelm the third and he is the King of Prussia he is the King of Prussia and he stayed out of the action during the third coalition and even now Prussia is a major European power and he gets threatened by this rising power of napoleon who was able to break up or almost take away Austria's influence from the Holy Roman Empire and now it kind of becomes you know becomes this Confederation of the Rhine let me show you the map so this whole area over here this whole area let me make sure I'm drawing this whole area right well this all of this right over here these that which is now mainly modern-day Germany that used to be the Holy Roman Empire its Emperor was the king of Austria who wasn't necessarily in it but it kind of implied some type of Allegiance once he trounces once this is France right here once he was able to trounce Austria in the in Austral it's Austria and Russia then this becomes a confederation of rye and Holy Roman Empire let me let me highlight this a little bit better so this general area Holy Roman Empire no longer exists and it now becomes kind of a satellite region of France France has a huge amount of control so you could imagine that the king of pressure starts getting a little bit threatened France is on its borders it's a it's shown itself to be able to defeat other great powers with these so this guy gets a little paranoid whether he feels that France might kind of threaten precious power or maybe he's on the other side of the equation that he just didn't like this upstart who was not related to all of the other all of the other royalty of Europe he maybe wanted to put him in his place so Frederick Wilhelm the third declares war declares war we're now in 1806 so we're now in 1806 we have Prussia Prussia declares declares war war on France you're gonna see this pattern multiple times and the one thing to kind of remember if you just want to remember kind of major themes we're always talking about the first coalition second coalition third coalition fourth coalition all of these and it's always some combination of Britain and Britain has kind of already dominated the ocean so when we talk about these these battles on land we're not talking about Britain much but this whole time Britain's in the background trying to be a pain in Frances neck and then all of the other coalition's are some combination of Prussia Austria and Russia and some other countries here and there but you see one after another they keep challenging Napoleon up to this point and Napoleon keeps trouncing them takes more and more land and territory and power from them and they get even more insecure and then they want to form other coalition's so this happens again and this is the start of the fourth coalition the last video is the third then this is now the formation of the fourth fourth coalition and essentially the coalition forms as soon as someone else other than Great Britain joins the fight because Great Britain is kind of in a continuous war with Napoleon over this entire time period so we've got this fourth coalition that forms we've got Prussia we've got Great Britain and Russia wants to join the fight again so as you can imagine the end of the third coalition didn't keep Russia out of the fight for long so you also have let me write it down you have Prussia Russia and Great Britain there's always some other actors but these are the major ones Great Britain and it was kind of silly on the part of Prussia because pressure would have been in a much better situation if it had helped the third coalition maybe that would have changed the outcome but now they're kind of taking on Napoleon at least initially on their own because Russia is always kind of behind Austria or pressure depending which coalition you're talking about so Prussia and Austria are always the first line of defense in this case in the fourth coalition its Prussia and they get trounced they get trounced in Jena our stead let me show that is so this is actually Napoleon getting the troops together for at Jena our stead this right here is is a charge of the French troops there let me write this down this is Jenna Jenna our stead our stead two cities close by each other in Germany they're roughly roughly around here I don't let's see this map is a little difficult to read but they're roughly in that area right there they try out Napoleon once again he trounces Prussia soap Russia's just out of the way that's in that's in October of 1806 so this right here this right here is in October and then Napoleon essentially chases the Russians through most of what's now Poland so he chases the Russians through most of what is now Poland he has this hugely bloody stalemate at a low I don't know even know how to say that it's right around there if I'm if I read my maps correctly so he stalemate stalemate this is in this is an 1807 stalemate February 1807 at at let me get the spelling right ey la you super bloody he they actually win the battle but they aren't able to decisively defeat the Russian troops and/or the Russian army and their estimates that in that one battle there's anywhere from fifteen to twenty-five thousand casualties on both sides which is huge at that time I mean even now you know if you think about even modern Wars that's a major amount of casualties to have in just one single battle but Napoleon persists and his event eventually able to decisively decisively meet the Russians at Freedland which is right about there this is Freedland Freedland right there that is in June in June of 1807 and then there he's able to decisively defeat the fourth coalition so here we have where we're kind of at the summer of 1807 we're at summer of 1807 right here 1807 we're talking about June is when Freeland occurs Russians decisively defeated the Prussians were already trounced several months ago and then June and then in July of oh seven July of July of 1807 you have France signing the trees of Tilsit the treaties of Tilsit and it's called the treaties of Tilsit instead of the Treaty of Tilsit because he signed separate treaties with Russia and Prussia at this point Napoleon had kind of lost all respect for Prussia and he wanted to show it so he had a separate treaty with Prussia and a separate treaty with Russia the one with Russia was a lot more respectable it had all this language about how to Napoleon and Tsar Alexander the one are now friends this is this is Tsar Alexander one right here this is Alexander one and as you'll see this friendship is very temporary as you could imagine I mean this was the guide Napoleon defeated at Austerlitz not too long ago so you know with all this friendship should probably be written in quotes but the treaty with Russia was very friendly and that's I think Napoleon still respected still respected Russia's power so it you know friendly with Russia declared them it declared them allies friendly with Russia but it took but it kind of carved up the other Treaty of Tilsit with Prussia carved it up carved up Prussia and the main thing it did if we look at this map here this is a map of Central Europe or I guess you know the the the Prussia and Austria and France at the end of the third coalition the main thing it did it took the territory west of the river Elbe from Prussia so this is the river Elbe right here that right there is the river Elbe the blue is pressure after the third coalition so all of this stuff gets taken away from Prussia and most of it turns into a French satellite kingdom called the kingdom of Westphalia so this is part of the Prussian Treaty of Tilsit so you have the kingdom of Westphalia kingdom of Westphalia and to really emphasize it really is a French satellite state and to add insult to injury to the Prussians Napoleon puts his brother Jerome as king so Napoleon's Napoleon's brother Jerome Jerome becomes King so it really is a satellite state of France so here at the end of this you know the other powers in Europe haven't learned that this Europe that this that this Napoleon character with his grand arm this huge army that he's been able to raise and his his military tactics really is someone formidable to deal with and so they keep you know third coalition then they lose territory then the fourth coalition then they lose even more territory now what happens at the end of this fourth coalition and actually during the fourth fourth coalition after Napoleon defeated Prussia he realized gee you know what I have IV there in direct control or an indirect control in of a significant part of Europe and at the same time he knew that Britain had complete domination of the oceans and it was this kind of rouse rising industrial power you know as the beginning of the Industrial Revolution so Napoleon's ideas well Yugi I can't defeat Russia on the on the waters I'm sorry I can't defeat Great Britain on the waters did I say Russia now I've been saying the whole point is is that Great Britain is dominant on the oceans and Napoleon realized they can't he can't invade Great Britain by sea he can't he can't do anything in the water with Great Britain kind of pestering him so what he tries to do is declare economic warfare economic warfare in Great Britain and he Institute's he Institute's at the end he Institute's at the end of 1806 the Continental System so I'll put this right here this is in November of 1806 so this is right after he trounces the Prussians at Generale stead Jena out of dead in November of 1806 where he's feeling really good about his strength on the actual continent he Institute's what he calls the Continental System continental continental system and this is really just an ocean of economic warfare with Great Britain that hey if you are either part of the French Peyer Empire controlled by the French power or French Empire or aligned with the French Empire you embargo Great Britain this little island it controls the waters but it's dependent on trade it's a Napoleon's idea to this continental system is to embargo embargo the India the United Kingdom of you know he can because you call it great but whatever you want to call it embargo Great Britain embargo in Bargo Great Britain and one thing he got out of the Russians this was actually a huge concession because Russia was a major power at the time he got them through the Treaty of Tilsit to also join the Continental System join the Continental let me write that in a color that will actually show up join the Continental Continental System and in return he also got some land some islands the ionic islands off the coast the western coast of Greece and some some of the some of the land off the Dalmatian coast let me show you right there so this area over here and Russia in return and you know it's pretty good because Russia essentially lost the war but in return they were allowed to do whatever they want with the ottoman empire and we'll talk more about the Ottoman Empire in future videos but if you want to have a general view of what the Ottoman Empire is I guess the the last the last remnant of it is what is today modern Turkey but obviously was a little it was an empire at that time but Russia and the Ottoman Empire were kind of at odds with each other so it was great for Russia to say hey I'm gonna be able to do whatever I want with the Russia with the Ottoman Empire because before this Napoleon was was nominally aligned with the Ottomans so this was actually a big concession for Russia so at the end of this we have a situation once again I guess the other powers don't realize it over and over a third coalition hehehe duh you know he really takes care of the Russians and the Austrians destroys the Holy Roman Empire makes it the Confederation of the Rhine under Napoleon's control Prussia thinks you know wants to put down Napoleon declares war again fourth coalition the only byproduct of that is now they lose this land and Napoleon becomes even stronger and puts his King his brother as king in the kingdom of Westphalia and now he has Russia as an ally to help his embargo on England so really after after the end of the fourth coalition a lot of a lot of historians do this it's kind of the height of Napoleon's power in Europe