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Current time:0:00Total duration:20:22

Video transcript

in the video on the fourth coalition I forgot to add one super important consequence of the treaties of Tilsit and especially the Treaty of Tilsit with Prussia I already talked about that it was all about carving up Prussia and really humiliating Prussia and really removing it from the status of one of one of the pre-eminent powers and all I talked about was the loss of the Western the territories of pressure west of the Elbe and that's about that area right there but just as important as that the polish holdings of prussia so all of this area right up let me all of this area right over here this also was removed from Prussia and became a French satellite state and became the Duchy of Warsaw Duchy of Warsaw so I just really want to emphasize the Treaty of Tilsit I only emphasize it's kind of what happened on the western side of Russia but the eastern side of Prussia also got carved up and Prussia essentially lost half of its half of its size so very dramatic humiliation for Prussia at the end of the Treaty of Tilsit or the treaties of Tilsit now with that out of the way we talked about in the last video that the end of the fourth coalition napoleon was kind of near the peak of his power he had kind of done everything right he had this kind of steady upward momentum in his in in or France had a steady upward momentum and it's in its power but we're going to see in this video or is at least the beginnings of the downfall of Napoleon you're not going to it's not going to be obvious when you look at the territory because it's from a territorial point of view going to see in this video that he's actually gaining territory but he's going to start doing some of the actions that end up undermining him so we talked about in the last video we talked about this whole notion of the Continental System Continental Continental system where Napoleon was obsessed with people on the continent of Europe boycotting England not not trading with England and he figured this was the only way that he could really undermine England's dominance on the ocean or undermined or eventually maybe even undermine England generally so he was very you know as we said the treaties of Tilsit he got Russia to participate in the Continental System so he wanted everyone to buy into it and one party that at this point we're talking about where in 1807 now we are in 1807 now one party that wasn't all that keen in participating in the Continental System was Portugal that's Portugal right there so Napoleon goes and chats well you know they didn't chat directly but he gets the agreement of the king of Spain this is Charles the fourth and he's going to look like a bit of a fool in this video so this is Charles this is Charles the fourth Napoleon says hey Charles let's go in there let's go into Portugal that little upstart country that doesn't want to participate the Continental System you and me will invade together we'll bring them into kind of our our realm of influence and you know we can both kind of pillage the lands and and get the wealth of Portugal Charles the fourth he's all up for this so he so a combined French and Spanish force invade Portugal so in 1807 this is the end of eighteen cents actually October write this down in October you have a combined French and Spanish invasion invasion of Portugal and they are able to take Portugal but we're going to see that it's reasonably temporary now I just mentioned that this guy is going to look like the fool of this video and the reason is is because for with the excuse of reinforcements obviously obviously to get to Portugal you have to go through Spain so with the excuse of sending in reinforcements Napoleon in 1808 this is an 1808 and now we're talking about early 1808 in particular in March so the excuse of sending in reinforcements to support the Portugal campaign and sprain is like oh you're my ally yeah sure send those hundred thousands of troops right through our territory we're not going to worry about it with the Lexx with that excuse Napoleon was able to send a hundred the troops and occupy Madrid and occupy Madrid so this is one of those lessons of never get too greedy this guy got greedy wanted to help Napoleon or even I guess the other lesson is be careful who your friends are this guy wanted to invade Portugal but the the side effect of it is that Madrid gets occupied and that actually he gets dethroned and and so you know you have this the situation here the French are now in control of Spain in May in May of 1808 in May of and this and and this is really going to be the first little spark that is kind of the downfall of Napoleon in May May 2nd May 2nd 1808 a popular uprising starts in Madrid sink those DeMayo so popular uprising in Madrid popular uprising and at the same time a little bit after that so you know you can imagine this is a hugely tumultuous time you have you know you have this I guess an occupation of Portugal with the excuse of reinforcements in March the French troops occupy Madrid q PI Madrid then in May so in you know a couple of months later a popular uprising starts in Madrid this leads to popular uprisings throughout Spain but at the very same time is this this is a little bit after the uprising in May Napoleon says oh we know this is just a little uprising I'm still in control of spit of Spain he he appoints his other brother remember he does this whole business he's putting his brothers in charge of different parts of the Empire he puts his brother he puts his brother Joseph he puts his he appoints his brother Joseph or you could kind of say he inserts his brother Joseph as the king of Spain as the king of Spain King of Spain so this is all in kind of you know early mid 1808 Spain is in all of this you know turmoil a new king has been appointed who's Napoleon's brother the old king is no longer in charge you have this you you have an ongoing battle in Portugal they don't have a firm hold on Portugal just yet and in the rest of 1808 the the the uprising that occurs throughout Spain is actually pretty successful in enforcing the French troops to to retreat so French retreat so then there's a French retreat French retreat and a major I guess aspect of this of this uprising is this it's one of the first real national uprisings in history where you know it's it's it's people are saying we are Spanish we do not like being controlled by the French we do not like how they have treated our royalty we as a as a nation are going to rise up and the other interesting aspect of this whole uprising that it starts starts in Madrid with those DeMayo but then it starts continuing throughout the whole nation is the idea of guerrilla warfare guerrilla warfare not guerrilla warfare korilla guerrilla warfare and this comes from the Spanish for it little war guerrilla not from the the the large ape and what it implies and you've probably heard the word on the news before is kind of a non-conventional style of fighting where a small little groups kind of engage their enemy and very non-traditional style so it becomes a very painful at least for Napoleon's forces it became very difficult fighting this these non-conventional battles all over Spain so they were able to force the French to retreat Napoleon says gee you know what if you if you want a job well done you got to do it yourself so Napoleon comes in at the end of the year and then he retakes Madrid so December of 1808 in December Napoleon Napoleon back in Madrid back in Madrid now you might say always you know fine and well now Napoleon is back here he has firm control of Spain but not everything is good because as you could imagine there's all these other characters here that keep forming coalition's for and against Napoleon I mean even when they say that their allied you know in the back of their minds they can't wait until they can declare the next declare the next war on Napoleon so in 1809 in 1809 let me write this down 1809 in 1809 Austria declares war Austria declares war and since Great Britain was isn't this at this point in time perpetual war with France this becomes the fifth coalition declares war and this is the fifth coalition but this one is fairly short-lived Napoleon says gee I got I got you know these guys on my Eastern Front you know Austria's is is read Eclair war on me so he leaves Spain to go lead that fight and he leaves three hundred thousand of his best troops in Spain to hold Spain and frankly this is the most important side effect of the fifth coalition is that it Lala it makes Napoleon go to fight Austria to lead that effort as opposed to worrying about Spain and essentially by doing that it allows and I don't know if it's necessarily the fact that Napoleon wasn't there but the it could be because Napoleon wasn't there is that Spain just becomes a major thorn in Napoleon side this guerrilla warfare just continues on and on and on and it just goes back and forth and the French will win a battle and they'll win another battle but they still don't have control and these guerrillas will kind of peck at them and continue the uprising and this really just drains the French army and really just gets at them a little bit by a little bit really over the the remainder of Napoleon's reign so all the way until 18 to 14 we haven't gone over that yet but this this occurs all the way to 1814 so I said at the beginning of the video this is one of the the starting points of Napoleon's downfall that's just because he was just stuck in Spain he was just stuck in Spain from 1808 on just continuing to have to send troops and supplies and reinforcements and and wealth to support what they call the Peninsular campaign the Peninsular campaign and it just drains him it drains his resources it drains his energy and it really hurts his ability to fight a Wars with all of the other people who he needs to fight wars with this is one of the major downfalls the other one which we'll probably talk in either the next video or a video after that is his invasion of Russia which he does in 1812 and that that's super that that that that you know the one could debate which one drains of France's resources more but the invasion of Russia really decimates Napoleon's forces and really makes him susceptible to to really conquest by England and all of the other allies so we're going to see that in a couple of videos so you have this Peninsular campaign continuing to drain Napoleon he was you know it all started because he wanted to enforce the Continental system on Portugal and you got a little bit of greedy and he also wanted to conquer Spain and just uh just to highlight why it's called the Peninsular campaign this right here a little bit of geography this is called the Iberian Peninsula right there that I'm circling so you could call it the Iberian Peninsula campaign because it's everything that's going on on this peninsula and Spain and Portugal Iberian Peninsula Peninsula been in let me write that little pin in Silla now if we back up a little bit back to 1808 where we had this uprising in Spain and they were able to push the French back at the same time you also had a popular uprising in Portugal in late roughly in the fall in the late summer or fall of 1808 the British got excited they saw it as their chance to push Napoleon out of Portugal so you have this gentleman right here Sir Arthur Wellesley he's a future Duke of Wellington and he's eventually going to be responsible for pushing Napoleon out of Spain entirely or at least out of Madrid so this is Sir Arthur sir arthur wellesley he him and long with the british and along with the portuguese are able to push the french out in august of 1808 so let me put this in art in my not so neatly drawn timeline here so the december napoleon is back so right before that in august august out of portugal out of portugal and this is another motivation for napoleon to say gee you know what things aren't going well on the Iberian Peninsula I have to take charge of things myself now at the very same time is all of this is happening and this is really just kind of out of interest you could imagine that well it's more than out of interest because it actually has you know huge global repercussions you might say okay well okay you have this Iberian Peninsula Spain is going back and forth between the French and the gorillas and you you know Portugal has this whole situation where their King was dethroned but then the British help and take it back but you could imagine that these nations are in just a super state of flux in a super state of flux now you could also imagine I mean these the king of Spain wasn't just the king of Spain he was king of the Spanish Empire and the Spanish Empire this I mean the main conch the main landmass of the Spanish Empire was in the Americas so this right here that was the Spanish Empire at the time this was a 400 year old Spanish Empire all from you know starting with you know club Columbus sailing the ocean blue in 1492 he had this huge Spanish Empire and and one of the really important side effects of Napoleon invading Spain and having this long protracted engagement in Spain is it it catalyzed the ability of these colonies at the time to start looking for their independence we're going to do whole videos on that in the future but this really is one of the things that allowed them to get independence but you know obviously if the Empire is in flux these guys can say hey gee we don't have you know why do we have to listen to that to that to that nation anymore that we don't even know who's in charge there at the same time same thing in Portugal Brazilian independence didn't come until a little bit later after this period but this is Napoleon's invasion is what really sparked the beginning of a lot of turmoil in Portugal and that eventually is one of the causes that leads to the eventual independence of Brazil that doesn't happen for another ten or fifteen years but this is you could imagine this is where a lot of that action can be traced back now another interesting point that occurred around around this time and actually I didn't tell you what happened on the fifth coalition I said Austria declared war obviously Britain was already at war so it was the fifth coalition Napoleon had to leave that maybe made Spain a little bit harder to hold for France and that's why it kind of bled France slowly but Napoleon was able to take care of Austria and then he was able to take a little bit more land from them actually gallaecia this area of Austria was given to the Duchy of Warsaw which was a French satellite state and then Austria once again had to say oh gee Napoleon where your friend we're going to do whatever you ask us to so you could imagine it this time land wise the Empire of Napoleon seemed pretty dramatic you know you could you could include Spain here although he had to spend a lot of resources to keep Spain and then now we had Austria at least was in the fold you know Prussia was not really happy about it but this whole area here kind of this the the the western half of Poland was under French control Germany you know the Confederacy of the Rhine which is now Germany and then a good bit of Italy the kingdom of nidalee Italy was also a a French satellite state but Napoleon of course you know he he wanted everyone to participate in the Continental system that's the only way to really strangle England and the papal states were not participating in the Continental system so the papal States right there were not participating in the Continental system so they you know he sent some people over to kind of try to convince them to and when when they didn't they occupied the papal States so French troops occupy the papal States and once again this we're going in this was still back in 1808 it was actually early 1808 it's just on a different front so in February up here in 1808 actually that's before they even occupied Madrid so in 1808 February French troops occupy papal States occupy papal States they essentially give them over to the Kingdom of Italy which at that time was a French satellite state so it's almost like annexing into France and then once the fifth coalition was done with Napoleon felt so good about himself that he formally annexed the papal States - and then now we're in 1809 in 1809 he formally he formally so this is 1809 1809 the papal states are actually annexed into the French Empire papal States annexed now you can imagine that the Pope wasn't that happy about this this is the Pope at the time this is Pius the seventh Pius Pius the seventh he wasn't so happy about it so he excommunicates Napoleon and I'll do a whole video on excommunication but it's really about as bad as something you could do to someone within the powers of the Catholic Church and by implication you're no longer part of the church and you will probably go to hell now at least if the Pope has anything to do with it so the you know Napoleon wasn't happy about this he sent some people some officers once again talked to the Pope about it say hey gee why do you want to communicate Napoleon why don't you just play nice why don't you just you know you know agreed whatever Napoleon says the Pope doesn't agree and so he gets abducted this is why it's interesting Napoleon he sees you know he's he's not afraid to take some serious action so he gets abducted in 1809 by French officers abducted abducted in 1809 by French officers and it's not clear that it's not obvious that Napoleon told them to do it but once he was abducted they actually started shuttling him around or all around France depending on who needed to talk to him or you know where you know if they was afraid that the British would might try to free him from one port they would send him someplace else but it wasn't clear that Napoleon ordered this but he never ordered his release so in some ways you got to say that it was sanctioned by Napoleon so all of this mess starts you know Napoleon's messing with the Pope he is this ongoing a bleeding going on in Spain and that ends actually in 1812 where Sir Arthur Wellesley finally retakes Madrid but in during this whole period you can imagine it's really draining into the resources of the French of the French Empire