Becoming modern 1800-1900: Delacroix, Van Gogh, Klimt, and more. Community Questions Introduction—Becoming Modern Romanticism Artists such as Delacroix, Goya, Turner, and Friedrich responded to a newly modern world by creating some of the most emotionally expressive art ever made. Early photography The early photography of Niépce, Daguerre, Cameron posed questions about art, aesthetics, and technology we still try to answer today. Victorian art and architecture Pugin, Burne-Jones and other 19th-century British artists responded to the industrialized present by looking to an idealized past. The avant-garde: Realism, Impressionism and Post-Impressionism Courbet, Manet, Degas, and van Gogh used subjective experience to invent new ways to see. Symbolism & Art Nouveau By the 1880s artists such as Klimt, Khnopff, and Stuck turned from the academies and focused on the interior self by exploring dreams, myth and death. America: Civil War to the Gilded Age Find here the art of Winslow Homer, the expat Mary Cassatt, and work by other American artists in the 2nd half of the 19th century. Painting in Mexico The landscapes of José María Velasco and the first art school in the Americas, the Real Academia de San Carlos Russia: The Peredvizhniki (The Wanderers) The Peredvizhniki artists set out to create unvarnished representations of contemporary Russian life.