- Overview of metabolism questions
- Overview of metabolism: Anabolism and catabolism
- ATP: Adenosine triphosphate
- ATP hydrolysis: Gibbs free energy
- ATP hydrolysis: Transfer of a phosphate group
- Oxidation and reduction review from biological point-of-view
- Oxidation and reduction in metabolism
- Electron carrier molecules
- ATP hydrolysis mechanism
How does ATP provide energy for biosynthesis reactions? Use an understanding of Gibbs Free Energy to understand how ATP is coupled to energy-requiring processes. By Jasmine Rana.
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- May be worthwhile discussing G<0 as being "favored" or "spontaneous" vs G=0 as equilibrium vs G>0 as "unfavored" or "non-spontaneous" for completeness (maybe discussed in Gen chem section)(6 votes)
- Feel free to correct me if I'm wrong, but I believe the term "favorable" refers to being energetically favorable, a.k.a. the process does not use energy because it is spontaneous (G<0). "Unfavorable" means that energy is being used, and therefore the process is non-spontaneous (G>0). Ms. Rana did a video on Gibbs free energy without an emphasis on ATP that would help with understanding this.(10 votes)
- Why is ATP preferred to be used as the energy currency of the cell than other nucleoside triphosphate?(4 votes)
- I don't think there's any real reason, it's just how life evolved. In fact other nucleoside triphosphates are used for some reactions. A molecule of GTP is generated by the citric acid cycle and is used to catalyse microtubule polymerisation and translation. UTP is used to drive the synthesis of glycogen from glucose. CTP is involved in glycosylation. Other phosphate carriers such as creatine phosphate, arginine phosphate and various inositol phosphates are also used a short term energy stores.(12 votes)
- In previous videos, you've stated that Gibbs Free Energy has a unit of Joules/mol, but here it is stated that the unit is Joules. Which is correct or are they somewhat interchangeable?(5 votes)
- This might be a little late but the units of Gibbs free energy is technically joules but it can be converted to joules/mol by using Avogadro's constant. You can confirm Gibbs free energy units by memorizing that the units for enthalpy is J, units for entropy is J/K and temperature is in K.(5 votes)
- I'm a little confused. In the previous video, He says that the -OH group of the water bonds to the Phosphate molecule and that the extra Hydrogen left over bonds to the ADP. But You say that the extra hydrogen becomes apart of another water molecule in the solution forming a hydronium ion. What gives?(3 votes)
- A hydrogen ion and a hydronium ion are both ways of saying that there's a free proton (or hydrogen ion) in the solution. Since the positive hydrogen ion is just a proton, it can bond with electrons like the lone pairs on the water molecule to yield the hydronium ion(1 vote)
- What exactly is energy?(please don't say it is the ability to do work)(2 votes)
- This page really helped me understand what "energy" or "work" is supposed to be happening with ATP.
- From an answer to a question on this page, there's A-, U-, G-, and CTP. Is that a coincidence that they start with the RNA bases?(1 vote)
- Good question. It is not a coincidence! The A/U/G/C stand for the nitrogenous base that is part of the overall *TP molecule, and they are the same bases as are used in nucleotides like RNA. For ATP, the nitrogenous base is adenine. For GTP, it's guanine. For CTP it's cytosine, and Uracil for UTP. There is a good diagram of the structure that shows very clearly how the nitrogenous base is part of the overall molecule in the Overview of ATP hydrolysis article.(2 votes)
- Why is it that the conversion of a monomer to a polymer isn't a favorable reaction on its own (without the reaction coupling with ATP)? It seems to me that if you're making more bonds, the polymeric state should be more favorable and therefore make the conversion of monomers to polymers have a negative delta G.(1 vote)