If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources for Khan Academy.

If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked.

Carboxylic acids

8 videos
5D: Have you ever used vinegar to make succulent barbecue wings? Then carboxylic acids are your friends. Vinegar, also known as acetic acid, is one of the simplest carboxylic acids. You will discover the important nomenclature, properties, and reactions of carboxylic acids in this tutorial.

Carboxylic acid nomenclature and properties

VIDEO 8:52 minutes
Naming carboxylic acids and analyzing their physical properties. By Jay.

Reduction of carboxylic acids

VIDEO 8:54 minutes
How to reduce carboxylic acids using lithium aluminum hydride (and borane). By Jay.

Preparation of acyl (acid) chlorides

VIDEO 10:23 minutes
How to prepare acyl (acid) chlorides using thionyl chloride. By Jay.

Preparation of acid anhydrides

VIDEO 7:09 minutes
How to prepare acid anhydrides from carboxylic acids. By Jay.

Preparation of esters via Fischer esterification

VIDEO 9:37 minutes
How to draw the mechanism for a Fischer esterification. By Jay.

Preparation of amides using DCC

VIDEO 11:54 minutes
The mechanism for the formation of amides from carboxylic acids and amines using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC). By Jay.  

Decarboxylation

VIDEO 6:47 minutes
The decarboxylation (loss of carbon dioxide) of malonic acid and a beta-keto acid. By Jay.

Alpha-substitution of carboxylic acids

VIDEO 9:06 minutes
How to use the Hell-Volhard-Zelinksy (HVZ) reaction to synthesize alpha-amino acids. By Jay.