- Nervous system questions
- Structure of the nervous system
- Functions of the nervous system
- Peripheral somatosensation
- Muscle stretch reflex
- Gray and white matter
- Upper motor neurons
- Somatosensory tracts
- Subcortical cerebrum
- Cerebral cortex
- Neurotransmitter anatomy
- Early methods of studying the brain
- Lesion studies and experimental ablation
- Modern ways of studying the brain
- Motor unit
- Autonomic nervous system
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- Why does cooling down neurons not kill the neurons?(7 votes)
- It can if you cool it down too much. You cool the neurons just enough so that they can not function. For example think of going outside in the winter with no gloves. After a while you're hand may become numb and your fingers can not function well, but they will return to normal functioning as long as you do not stay outside for too long and develop frostbite.(19 votes)
- Wouldn't a researcher also be damaging other areas of the brain while passing through if they're trying to insert an electrode or chemicals into a deeper area of the brain? How do they know whether their effects are a result of their experimental desires rather than the damage done to other areas as the electrode or chemicals are inserted into the brain?(4 votes)
- This is because there is considerable work that was done which led to our contemporary state of neuroscientific research. These techniques, methods and instruments have been developed over decades of refinement and as such the confounds which you speak of are often well cataloged and realized by the professionals actively researching and experimenting. Not to mention if you read contemporary neuroscientific research papers you will find pages of discussion regarding the uses of methods, techniques and instruments and what it means in the context of the experiment. However you're completely correct to be mindful of these things. Just because we've come a long way in understanding them doesn't mean we still can't make mistakes. After all, the brain is deeply complex and we're still beginning to arrive at an understanding of what it is.(5 votes)
- Does our brain have stem cells that are capable of regenerating neurons? Or what about rerouting neurons to pick up the 'slack' of damaged or inefficient neurons? If not, are we capable of extracting stem cells from umbilical cords, or any other methodology, to make this possible?(3 votes)
- Unfortunately, your questions are very difficult to answer. There is some controversy regarding the existence of stem cells in the brain, but even if there were, glial cells such as astrocytes will likely inhibit the regeneration of neural axons:
Extracting embryonic stem cells and implanting them in the brain also has its ethical and technical issues. However, rerouting neurons is possible in the context of plasticity and long-term potentiation.(4 votes)
- The video indicates that rat brains are used for experimentation, but how analogous is our brain to that of a rat? There are differences between humans and rats. We can speak so we have a speech centre in our brain, but rats don't speak. So how can we make any inferences about damage to these areas in human brains if rat brains don't have the same areas?(3 votes)
- At4:04noradrenergic neurons are defined as neurons that release norepinephrine or adrenaline.
To clarify, does this mean that a noradrenergic neuron would have both norepinephrine and adrenaline in its inventory to promote synapses of either neurotransmitter as needed?(1 vote)
- [Voiceover] Ablation studies, or experimental ablation, describes the method of deliberately destroying brain tissue or making brain lesions, so a wound or an injury, in order to observe the changes that this might have on an animal's behavior. So for lesion studies, we're studying brain function by purposefully destroying parts of the brain and then studying the resulting change in behavior. And the main idea here is that the functions that can no longer be performed after the damage are the ones that were controlled by those damaged regions. And I know I've used a human brain to illustrate this, but I want to state right up front that this type of research is not done with humans. It is only done with lab animals, like rats or mice. There are number of different ways that experimental ablation can be performed. The first is surgical removal with a surgical scalpal, or similar instrument. So I have an image of a rat brain here, and scientists might remove this area in order to see what effect it will have on the animal's behavior. And while this can be done with a scalpal, it can also be done through surgical aspiration. And this involves literally sucking out brain tissue. But tissue removal is a little bit limited. Because you can really only use it for removing structures on the surface of the brain. Also, scientists aren't always interested in actually removing brain tissue. Instead, they're usually more interested in destroying the brain tissue in place, because usually this winds up being a lot less invasive. And that could involve simply severing the nerve with a scalpal. And when you do this, the signals that are being sent down that nerve can no longer reach their target area. And since that area can't receive any signals, it can no longer do the job that it was once doing. Another way is through radio frequency lesions. And this method, along with many of the other methods that we will mention, can be used to destroy tissue both on the surface of the brain as well as tissue that's deep inside of the brain. And to do this, a wire that is insulated except at the very tip is inserted into the brain to a pre-determined area. And I have an illustration of that here. So let's say that this wire has been inserted into a tumor that's right below the skin. Scientists will then pass a high-frequency current through the wire, which heats up and destroys the tissue near the wire tip. And I've tried to illustrate that with these little heat waves here. And this method is really great, because with this technique, scientists can actually vary the intensity and duration of the current in order to control the size of the resulting lesion. However, it destroys everything in that area. And while that's great if you're inserting it into a tumor and want to destroy those tumor cells, It winds up being kind of problematic when it comes to making brain lesions, because it winds up destroying the cell bodies of neurons as well as the axons of the neurons that are just passing through. And so it can be hard to determine whether or not a behavior is stopped because you've killed the cells responsible for it, or if maybe it's controlled by a completely separate brain area, and you just happen to have severed the route by which it carries messages to the body. Neurochemical lesions allow scientists to be much more precise. And there are a number of different ways that neurochemical lesions can be created. One type is referred to as excitotoxic lesions. Excitotoxins are chemicals that bind to glutoamate receptors and cause an influx of calcium into the neuron to such an extent that it kills the neuron. It essentially excites it to death. And one example of an excitotoxin that's usually used in this manner is kainic acid. And this method is really effective, because it destroys the cell bodies of the neurons but it does not influence the neurons whose axons are just passing by. And so you don't need to worry about severing connections in the way that you do with radio frequency lesions, or with simple knife cuts. Another type of neurochemical lesion is created by a chemical called oxidopamine, or 6-hydroxydopamine. And this is a really useful chemical that selectively destroys dopaminergic neurons as well noradrenergic neurons, or neurons that release domamine and norepinephrine or adrenaline. So imagine you have a presynaptic cell, and that cell is releasing dopamine into the synaptic cleft between the cells. But after that dopamine binds with the postsynaptic cell, the body wants to be able to get rid of it or recycle it. And one of the ways it does this is through a process called reuptake. Which is kind of like a little vacuum on the presynaptic cell that sucks all the neurotransmitter back in. Oxidopamine looks a lot like dopamine. In fact, the only difference is the addition of this extra hydroxyl group. And because they're so similar, the presynaptic cell can't really tell them apart. And so oxidopamine is also taken up by the reuptake channels. And then it kills those cells. And this is extremely useful, because it gives us a lot of control. It allows us to be sure not only that we're destroying cell bodies, and not just the axons of cells that are passing by, but it also allows us to kill very specific populations of neurons within specific areas of the brain. So for example, researchers can use this to model Parkinson's disease in lab animals, because it allows them to target and destroy the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The same neurons that are affected and destroyed in Parkinson's disease. The last technique I'm gonna talk about is called cortical cooling, or cryogenic blockade. And this involves cooling down neurons until they stop functioning, until they stop firing. And there are a number of different ways that scientists can do this. One way is with the use of a cryoloop, which you can see pictured here. And let me take a minute to write that down. And the idea is that this device, in particular this loop area right here, is surgically implanted between the skull and the brain. And then a chilled liquid is circulated through the loop. But the most important part of this technique is that it is temporary, it is reversible. So while all of the other ablation techniques involve permanently altering brain structures, this one allows us to knock out some nerves, see the effect that it has, and then bring the animal back to normal functioning. Temporary lesions can also be created through neurochemical means. For example, a drug called muscimol temporarily binds with gaba receptors and winds up temporarily inhibiting those neurons, and makes it so those neurons can't fire. And while these aren't all of the methods in which scientists can produce lesions in animals, I think it gives you an idea of how diverse this practice can be. Because while doctors can simply just sever an area with a knife, there are many more methods that are available to them that each have their own pros and cons and can each be used for different situations depending on the effect that the scientist wants to produce.