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- Electronegativity and bonding
- Intramolecular and intermolecular forces
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- sp³ hybridization
- Steric number
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- sp² hybridization
- sp hybridization
- Worked examples: Finding the hybridization of atoms in organic molecules
- Acid-base definitions
In sp² hybridization, one s orbital and two p orbitals hybridize to form three sp² orbitals, each consisting of 33% s character and 67% p character. This type of hybridization is required whenever an atom is surrounded by three groups of electrons. Created by Jay.
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- I'm still not clear on why there's an empty p orbital for BF3. Is that simply the rule whenever an atom is bonded three times, rather than four? Simply to indicate one additional bond is possible? And by that logic, would you draw two additional phantom p orbitals for an atom that could accept two additional electron pairs?(83 votes)
- Basically an orbital (be it s,p,d or f) is merely an area where there is a probability of finding an electron. In this case the unhybridized p orbital is of not much relevance. It is, as you mentioned, a mere phantom. Since it doesn't house any electrons it doesn not even affect the shape of BF3 as there is no electron to repel the bond pairs (VSEPR theory).
Also, here BF3 does not follow the Octet rule ( It is an exception ). So, you don't have to stick to the 8 valence electrons idea and all that. Just chill. Sal's just trying to tell you that when you create an sp2 hybrid, you take two P's (out of the Px, Py, Pz) and one 2S orbital and hybridise it, now that leaves u one unhybridised P, does it not? That' s all buddy. :)
Keep asking...... Luved ur question !(104 votes)
- The steric number for C2H4 would be 5 not 3 because there are 5 sigma bonds not three. 5+0=5 he leaves out the two on the right.(0 votes)
- When determining steric numbers you only count the bonds on one atom. The two on the right are not counted, therefore the correct number is 3.(212 votes)
- what is steric number?define(2 votes)
- The steric number is the sum of no. of sigma bonds and no. of lone pairs of electrons. It helps us to recognize what kind of hybridization is there.
Steric no. = 4 , its Sp3 hybridization
Steric no. = 3 , its Sp2 hybridization
Steric no. = 2, its Sp hybridization(90 votes)
- for C2H4, why did it start out with one electron in the S2 orbital and and extra electron in the P orbital?(22 votes)
- Carbon has 4 valence electrons, and its electron configuration is 1s^2 2s^2 2p^2. Now, in order for carbon to bond appropriately 4 times you could promote an electron from the 2s orbital to the 2p orbital (thus giving you 2s^1 and 2p^3). However, these orbitals still exist at different energy levels, and thus we use hybridization.
In the case of C2H4, each carbon is bonded to 3 different molecules, and thus, we only need to have 3 hybrid orbitals; we use the 2s orbital and 2 of the 2p orbitals and the sp2 hybrid orbital is created. Under this configuration, 3 of the valence electrons are in the sp2 orbitals (the ones that bond with other atoms) while the last valence electron is in the p2 shell that was not hybridized. I'm not sure if this answers your question fully, but hopefully it'll help you figure out why there was an extra electron in the p orbital(15 votes)
- Is it called ethylene or ethene?(11 votes)
- Ethylene is the "common" name. Ethene is the "official" or "IUPAC" name. Both are acceptable but the IUPAC name is preferred.(36 votes)
- why are double bonds always made of one sigma and one pi bond?
why can't it be made by both sigma bonds or pi bonds?(8 votes)
- It is impossible to have two σ bonds because you cannot have the orbitals angled the correct way to have a second σ bond between the same two atoms.
You can have a double bond of only π bonds, but that is VERY rare (and a subject of some dispute). In any event, that is getting into very advanced chemistry that will not be covered at this level of study.
Because σ bonds are easier to form (getting the angles right for the bond to happen) and because they are stronger by having more overlap, they nearly always form before a π bond can form. So, that is one of several reasons why you nearly always have a double bond forming with one σ bond and one π bond.(13 votes)
- boron in BF3 molecule the B has only 3 electrons in outermost shell and after bonding with flourine the B contains total 6 electrons but according to the octet rule the B should contain 8?(12 votes)
- One of the reasons that central atoms sometimes don't follow the octet rule, is because of
formal charge, I think this video will answer your question.
- Why would there be such a thing as pi bonds? Those lone electrons in the p shell should be repelling each other, since both have negative charge. At least in a sigma bond I can wrap my mind around the fact that the electrons are actually attracted to the nucleus of the bonded atom.(6 votes)
- In a π bond they are still attracted to the nuclei. They are just a little off to the side of the line joining the nuclei.(10 votes)
- What about triple bonds with the central atoms, how many sigma bonds and pi bonds would there be?(4 votes)
- The same two atoms can only have one sigma bond between them. All subsequent bonds will be pi bonds.
So, the way that it works is that the first bond between the same two atoms is nearly always a sigma bond (the few exceptions are VERY obscure and you probably won't encounter them). Any extra bonds are all pi bonds.
Thus, a triple bond is one sigma and two pi bonds.(10 votes)
- When does sp2 hybridization take place ?(5 votes)
- We describe the sp2 hybridization when there is a double bond. As Emma said, this is only a mathematical explanation. That big take away is that single bonds use sp3, double bonds use sp2.(5 votes)
Voiceover: In an earlier video, we saw that when carbon is bonded to four atoms, we have an SP3 hybridization with a tetrahedral geometry and an ideal bonding over 109.5 degrees. If you look at one of the carbons in ethenes, let's say this carbon right here, we don't see the same geometry. The geometry of the atoms around this carbon happens to be planar. Actually, this entire molecule is planar. You could think about all this in a plane here. And the bond angles are close to 120 degrees. Approximately, 120 degree bond angles and this carbon that I've underlined here is bonded to only three atoms. A hydrogen, a hydrogen and a carbon and so we must need a different hybridization for each of the carbon's presence in the ethylene molecule. We're gonna start with our electron configurations over here, the excited stage. We have carbons four, valence electron represented. One, two, three and four. In the video on SP3 hybridization, we took all four of these orbitals and combined them to make four SP3 hybrid orbitals. In this case, we only have a carbon bonded to three atoms. We only need three of our orbitals. We're going to promote the S orbital. We're gonna promote the S orbital up and this time, we only need two of the P orbitals. We're gonna take one of the P's and then another one of the P's here. That is gonna leave one of the our P orbitals unhybridized. Each one of these orbitals has one electron and it's like that. This is no longer an S orbital. This is an SP2 hybrid orbital. This is no longer a P orbital. This is an SP2 hybrid orbital and same with this one, an SP2 hybrid orbital. We call this SP2 hybridization. Let me go and write this up here. and use a different color here. This is SP2 hybridization because we're using one S Orbital and two P orbitals to form our new hybrid orbitals. This carbon right here is SP2 hybridized and same with this carbon. Notice that we left a P orbital untouched. We have a P orbital unhybridized like that. In terms of the shape of our new hybrid orbital, let's go ahead and get some more space down here. We're taking one S orbital. We know S orbitals are shaped like spheres. We're taking two P orbitals. We know that a P orbital is shaped like a dumbbell. We're gonna take these orbitals and hybridized them to form three SP2 hybrid orbitals and they have a bigger front lobe and a smaller back lobe here like that. Once again, when we draw the pictures, we're going to ignore the smaller back lobe. This gives us our SP2 hybrid orbitals. In terms of what percentage character, we have three orbitals that we're taking here and one of them is an S orbital. One out of three, gives us 33% S character in our new hybrid SP2 orbital and then we have two P orbitals. Two out of three gives us 67% P character. 33% S character and 67% P character. There's more S character in an SP2 hybrid orbital than an SP3 hybrid orbital and since the electron density in an S orbital is closer to the nucleus. We think about the electron density here being closer to the nucleus that means that we could think about this lobe right here being a little bit shorter with the electron density being closer to the nucleus and that's gonna have an effect on the length of the bonds that we're gonna be forming. Let's go ahead and draw the picture of the ethylene molecule now. We know that each of the carbons in ethylenes. Just going back up here to emphasize the point. Each of these carbons here is SP2 hybridized. That means each of those carbons is going to have three SP2 hybrid orbitals around it and once unhybridized P orbital. Let's go ahead and draw that. We have a carbon right here and this is an SP2 hybridized orbitals. We're gonna draw in. There's one SP2 hybrid orbital. Here's another SP2 hybrid orbital and here's another one. Then we go back up to here and we can see that each one of those orbitals. Let me go ahead and mark this. Each one of those SP2 hybrid orbitals has one electron in it. Each one of these orbitals has one electron. I go back down here and I put in the one electron in each one of my orbitals like that. I know that each of those carbons is going to have an unhybridized P orbital here. An unhybridized P orbital with one electron too. Let me go ahead and draw that in. I'll go ahead and use a different color. We have our unhybridized P orbital like that and there's one electron in our unhybridized P orbital. Each of the carbons was SP2 hybridized. Let me go ahead and draw the dot structure right here again so we can take a look at it. The dot structure for ethylene. Let's do the other carbon now. The carbon on the right is also SP2 hybridized. We can go ahead and draw in an SP2 hybrid orbital and there's one electron in that orbital and then there's another one with one electron and then here's another one with one electron. This carbon being SP2 hybridized also has an unhybridized P orbital with one electron. Go ahead and draw in that P orbital with its one electron. We also have some hydrogens. We have some hydrogens to think about here. Each carbon is bonded to two hydrogens. Let me go ahead and put in the hydrogens. The hydrogen has a valance electron in an unhybridized S orbital. I'm going ahead and putting in the S orbital and the one valance electron from hydrogen like this. When we take a look at what we've drawn here, we can see some head on overlap of orbitals, which we know from our earlier video is called a sigma bond. Here's the head on overlap of orbitals. That's a sigma bond. here's another head on overlap of orbitals. The carbon carbon bond, here's also a head on overlap of orbitals and then we have these two over here. We have a total of five sigma bonds in our molecules. Let me go ahead and write that over here. There are five sigma bonds. If I would try to find those on my dot structure this would be a sigma bond. This would be a sigma bond. One of these two is a sigma bond and then these over here. A total of five sigma bonds and then we have a new type of bonding. These unhybridized P orbitals can overlap side by side. Up here and down here. We get side by side overlap of our P orbitals and this creates a pi bond. A pi bond, let me go ahead and write that here. A pi bond is side by side overlap. There is overlap above and below this sigma bond here and that's going to prevent free rotation. When we're looking at the example of ethane, we have free rotation about the sigma bond that connected the two carbons but because of this pi bond here, this pi bond is going to prevent rotations so we don't get different confirmations of the ethylene molecules. No free rotation due to the pi bonds. When you're looking at the dot structure, one of these bonds is the pi bonds, I'm just gonna say it's this one right here. If you have a double bond, one of those bonds, the sigma bond and one of those bonds is a pi bond. We have a total of one pi bond in the ethylene molecule. If you're thinking about the distance between the two carbons, let me go ahead and use a different color for that. The distance between this carbon and this carbon. It turns out to be approximately 1.34 angstroms, which is shorter than the distance between the two carbons in the ethane molecule. Remember for ethane, the distance was approximately 1.54 angstroms. A double bond is shorter than a single bond. One way to think about that is the increased S character. This increased S character means electron density is closer to the nucleus and that's going to make this lobe a little bit shorter than before and that's going to decrease the distance between these two carbon atoms here. 1.34 angstroms. Let's look at the dot structure again and see how we can analyze this using the concept of steric number. Let me go ahead and redraw the dot structure. We have our carbon carbon double bond here and our hydrogens like that. If you're approaching this situation using steric number remember to find the hybridization. We can use this concept. Steric number is equal to the number of sigma bonds plus number of lone pairs of electrons. If my goal was to find the steric number for this carbon. I count up my number of sigma bonds. That's one, two and then I know when I double bond one of those is sigma and one of those is pi. One of those is a sigma bond. A total of three sigma bonds. I have zero lone pairs of electrons around that carbon. Three plus zero, gives me a steric number of three. I need three hybrid orbitals and we've just seen in this video that three SP2 hybrid orbitals form if we're dealing with SP2 hybridization. If we get a steric number of three, you're gonna think about SP2 hybridization. One S orbital and two P orbitals hybridizing. That carbon is SP2 hybridized and of course, this one is too. Both of them are SP2 hybridized. Let's do another example. Let's do boron trifluoride. BF3. If you wanna draw the dot structure of BF3, you would have boron and then you would surround it with your flourines here and you would have an octet of electrons around each flourine. I go ahead and put those in on my dot structure. If your goal is to figure out the hybridization of this boron here. What is the hybridization stage of this boron? Let's use the concept of steric number. Once again, let's use steric number. Find the hybridization of this boron. Steric number is equal to number of sigma bonds. That's one, two, three. Three sigma bonds plus lone pairs of electrons. That's zero. Steric number of three tells us this boron is SP2 hybridized. This boron is gonna have three SP2 hybrid orbitals and one P orbital. One unhybridized P orbital. Let's go ahead and draw that. We have a boron here bonded to three flourines and also it's going to have an unhybrized P orbital. Now, remember when you are dealing with Boron, it has one last valance electron and carbon. Carbon have four valance electrons. Boron has only three. When you're thinking about the SP2 hybrid orbitals that you create. SP2 hybrid orbital, SP2, SP2 and then one unhybridized P orbital right here. Boron only has three valance electrons. Let's go ahead and put in those valance electrons. One, two and three. It doesn't have any electrons in its unhybridized P orbital. Over here when we look at the picture, this has an empty orbital and so boron can accept a pair of electrons. We're thinking about its chemical behavior, one of the things that BF3 can do, the Boron can accept an electron pair and function as a lewis acid. That's one way in thinking about how hybridizational allows you to think about the structure and how something might react. This boron turns out to be SP2 hybridized. This boron here is SP2 hybridized and so we can also talk about the geometry of the molecule. It's planar. Around this boron, it's planar and so therefore, your bond angles are 120 degrees. If you have boron right here and you're thinking about a circle. A circle is 360 degrees. If you divide a 360 by 3, you get 120 degrees for all of these bond angles. In the next video, we'll look at SP hybridization.