If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website.

If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked.

Main content
Current time:0:00Total duration:16:19

Categories of mental disorders

Video transcript

in this video I want to talk briefly about the different types of mental disorders there is an enormous number of mental disorders many of which may have overlapping features for most categories of mental disorders there is usually a stipulation that the mental abnormalities are not due to the use of medications substances or another medical condition in which case the mental abnormalities are considered to be symptoms of that underlying cause rather than a mental disorder in and of itself also because features of mental disorders often overlap with mental and behavioral aspects of some people considered to be within the bounds of what is normal for a person's culture another general consideration is that the mental abnormalities cause distress or disability distress or disability distress or disability and this is a key point because that means that a person's that's just unusual or eccentric does not have a mental illness so that a person that's a little weird is not mentally ill so to give a very superficial overview of the types of mental disorders I'll go through some of the top level categories and recall that there are two main systems in use currently to categorize the mental disorders there's the icd-10 from the World Health Organization and then there's the dsm-5 from the American Psychiatric Association and I'll go through the categories of the dsm-5 just because I'm a little bit more familiar with that system but there would be a lot of similarities between the two systems the dsm-5 has twenty top-level categories and I'll start with the neurodevelopmental disorders these disorders involve distress or disability from an abnormality in development of the nervous system that causes mental dysfunction so let me just draw a little a little baby here you just draw this little guy and we'll put some diapers on him to represent a developing nervous system and particularly a developed brain and there's all sorts of things that can happen to the brain during its development that can lead to abnormal mental function some of the disorders in this category of neurodevelopmental disorders include intellectual disability which was previously called mental retardation the autism spectrum disorders are in this category and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders are in this category like all the other categories of mental disorders there's also a group within the neurodevelopmental disorders called other neurodevelopmental disorders for any that don't fit all the criteria of one of the specific disorders in this category but when this category is the best fit for the disorder so I won't mention that again but just keep in mind that every one of these big categories has an other category at the end of it the next big category is called the neurocognitive disorders which involve distress or disability from the loss of cognitive and often other functions of the brain after the nervous system has developed so let me just draw a little old person walking along walk in with they're walking with a cane and the distinction here between these neurocognitive disorders and the neurodevelopmental disorders is that with the neurocognitive disorder the develop the nervous system developed and then lost functions as opposed to the neurodevelopmental disorders where usually the function was never gained in the first place because the abnormality of the nervous system happens during development there are a couple of big categories of disorders within the neurocognitive disorders one is called delirium in delirium is the name for a reversible episode of abnormalities of cognitive and other higher brain functions from many potential causes such as certain drugs abnormalities of certain components of the blood or certain types of infections major neurocognitive disorder which is also called dementia and it's milder versions usually involve irreversible and often progressive loss of cognitive and other higher brain functions from many potential causes such as Alzheimer's disease or stroke the sleep/wake disorders involve distress or disability from abnormalities related to sleep so let me just draw this there's person over here is got their eyes closed and they're very sleepy and I'll just say they are sleeping so here they're snoring away this'll represent our sleep/wake disorders disorders in this category include insomnia and breathing related sleep disorders that involve insufficient amounts of uninterrupted sleep and there are other disorders in this category that cause abnormal sleepiness when awake additional disorders in this category involve abnormal behaviors during sleep such as sleepwalking the anxiety disorders involve distress or disability from abnormal amounts of worry or fear so for these let me just draw a little kind of worried person over here just looking very very worried about this whole situation some of the anxiety disorders are specific to certain stimuli which are known as phobias like a lot of people have a phobia of spiders or snakes while other disorders in this category are not specific to certain stimuli including a common one called generalized anxiety disorder panic disorder is in this category which involves panic attacks which are episodes of intense anxiety that may cause people to be afraid to leave their homes the depressive disorders involve distress or disability from abnormally negative mood let me put a frowny face right here to represent abnormally negative mood the term mood is used in several ways one way the term mood is used is to refer to a long-term emotional state which may be positive or negative in this way the word mood is related to emotions but emotions are thought of as usually brief experiences often related to specific stimuli like getting something you want whereas mood is more persistent and may or may not be related to specific events in a person's life the second way the term mood is used is as the subjective experience a person has of their emotions and another term effect is often used to describe how a person's emotional state appears to others so that mood may refer to what a person is saying they feel like they may say they feel sad while a fact may refer to the person crying in addition to negative mood the depressive disorders often involve related symptoms such as feelings of hopelessness or loss of enjoyment in activities these disorders carry a particularly high risk of suicide which is a major cause of death in people with many types of mental illness bipolar and related disorders involve distress or disability from abnormal mood similar to the depressive disorders but the difference is that these disorders may have periods of abnormally positive mood which are called mania so let me draw in addition to this frowny face here let me draw a very happy face and maybe a too happy face kind of a way to happy face for mania during periods of mania people will often sleep little talk fast and may make bad decisions from impaired judgement about the risks of activities or their own abilities and this can lead to all sorts of social or legal problems with this category of disorders schizophrenia spectrum and the other psychotic disorders is the next category which involves distress or disability from what is called psychosis so for that let me draw this this person up here and we'll say up in their brain they're hearing voices which is a common symptom of some psychotic disorders psychosis involves certain features such as delusions or hallucinations delusions are fixed false beliefs not explainable by a person's cultural background such as having special powers or the idea that one's thoughts are controlled by somebody else hallucinations involves sensory perceptions without real stimuli such as hearing voices that are not there with psychosis disorganized thinking may occur as well as what are called negative symptoms which may involve decreased emotional expression motivation or social behavior schizophrenia may have any of these features and the other disorders in this category usually have some of them the trauma and stressor related disorders involve distress or disability that may occur after mentally traumatic or stressful events leading to mood emotional behavioral and other abnormalities post-traumatic stress disorder is the Pro a type disorder in this category which has at many previous names because it has been common after Wars throughout history let me just draw soldier here carrion is gun to represent somebody who may have post-traumatic stress disorder give them a helmet too but this can occur after many different types of stressors in addition to war combat these disorders are common after all kinds of traumatic experiences such as rape assault and natural disasters substance-related and addictive disorders involve distress or disability from the abnormal use of substances that affect mental functions let me just draw a glass of some kind of alcohol here to represent the different substances that can be related to this category but there are a lot of substances that can affect mental functions and cause a substance related disorder these include alcohol caffeine cannabis hallucinogens inhalants opioids sedatives hypnotics angel lytx stimulants and tobacco amongst others the mental effects of these substances may cause mental abnormalities similar to the other types of mental disorders including mood abnormalities anxiety symptoms or psychosis other addictions like gambling are also included in this category because they share many aspects of addiction to substances the personality disorders involve distress or disability related personality personality involves long-term mental and behavioral features that are characteristic of a person there is a huge spectrum of personality types that are generally considered acceptable by a person's culture personality disorders involve personality features that are outside generally accepted societal norms and which cause distress or disability these have traditionally been grouped into clusters cluster a often has odd or eccentric behavior cluster B often involves intense emotional and relationship problems so let me just draw this very intense person over here to represent somebody in cluster B and cluster C is often anxious avoidant or obsessive disruptive impulse-control and conduct disorders involve distress or disability from behaviors that are unacceptably disruptive or impulsive for a person's culture so let me just draw this person over here shouting very loudly you know in an inappropriate setting obsessive-compulsive and related disorders involve distress or disability from obsessions or compulsions obsessions are thoughts that recur involuntarily and which are often unwelcome compulsions are activities that a person feels they must do in which are often related to an obsession a common example is someone having an obsession that their hands are dirty and then a compulsion to wash their hands many more times a day than would be normal somatic symptom and related disorders involve distress or disability from symptoms similar to those that may occur with illness unrelated to a mental disorder but the symptoms are of psychological origin with or without also having symptoms of a general medical condition at the same time an example of this could be someone that has abdominal pain so that they're saying you're saying how my abdomen hurts but there's actually not anything physically wrong with the abdomen the tissues of the abdomen are just fine and it's really caused by psychological factors like stress feeding and eating disorders involve distress or disability from mental or behavioral abnormalities related to food disorders in this category include anorexia nervosa where a person takes in an insufficient amount of food so we'll say this person is turning down a perfectly nice slice of pizza even though they're actually way below their healthy body weight and another common disorder in this category is bulimia nervosa which involves binge eating and purging the elimination disorders involve distress or disability from urination or defecation at inappropriate times or places well I'll just draw this person over here who has had a urinary accident they're trying to cover it up the dissociative disorder involve distress or disability from abnormalities of identity or memory so let me just draw this person over here asking Who am I some of the people with these disorders seem to have multiple personalities or may have lost memory for parts of their lives the sexual disfunction involve distress or disability from abnormalities in or performance of sexual activity so we'll just write our rated over here gender dysphoria involves distress or disability caused by a person identifying themselves as a different gender than that identified by society so as an example let me just draw a person here whose society identifies as being male and I'll just represent that with pants but they themselves feel that they are female now just represent that with the skirt this category requires an important distinction to be made if people experience distress or disability regarding gender identity the distress and disability constitutes the disorder a person identifying with another gender without distress or disability does not have a mental disorder previously there was much stigmatization or surrounding this issue and older categorization systems that did consider identification with another gender as a mental disorder in and of itself the paraphilic disorders involve people that have distress or disability related to having sexual arousal to unusual stimuli or what would be considered unusual for that person's culture so I'll also just point this over to the R rating over here so now similarly to gender dysphoria people that have sexual arousal to unusual stimuli do not have a mental disorder unless it causes distress or disability or for this category activities related to it could cause harm to another particularly children or other people without sufficient decision-making capacity for proper consent the last category is just called other disorders I'm just going to draw a big question mark here for this one and the entire purpose of this category is for any person that appears to have a mental disorder causing distress or disability but one that doesn't fit well in any of these other categories of mental disorders the vast majority of people with a mental disorder will fit in one of these big categories of mental disorders but very rarely a person just won't fit but does clearly have a mental disorder and that's what this other disorders category is for so that's all I have time for now and obviously there's a lot more information with all the specific disorders that are contained within these top-level categories of the dsm-5 but to keep this video to a reasonable length I'm just going to stop right here