Middle school biology - NGSS
Changes (mutations) to genes can result in changes to proteins, which can affect the structures and functions of the organism and thereby change traits. Some changes are beneficial, others harmful, and some neutral to the organism. Created by Sal Khan.
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- Wait now I'm confused about Spiderman. He got bit by a spider so do snakes,spiders,etc give DNA if they are poisonous and they bite you,and that can cause mutations? Or am I getting this all wrong haha :)🐍🕷😁(9 votes)
- Admittedly, since mutations are predominantly caused by chemical and radiation exposure, the idea is worth exploring.
If that spider was exposed to specific chemicals I'm sure it could transfer to a human (an example would be getting rabies from a mammal). The bite wouldn't, of course, give you superpowers but it's likely a plausible transaction that could cause a mutation. But it wouldn't affect you with a mutation immediately, if it actually caused a mutation it'd be more of a genetic pattern you could pass on.(4 votes)
- can mutation really alter your immune system? I mean in movies it can but can you do it in real life? thanks(5 votes)
- Yes, it probably can because your immune system is also based on your DNA, so probably it can. But I hope no one will get THAT mutation!(2 votes)
- can you mix an ostrige and a chicken to get a small ostrige or a big chicken(4 votes)
- it would probably not work in the first place because there are numerous barriers that prevents making hybrid animals. Like the two animals might not be attracted to each other, or even if they produced a child, the chromosome needs to be even. If it doesn't the new hybrid won't be able to breed with others. The white cells might think that the sperm cells are foreign and kill them off.(2 votes)
- Ima go make a turkey have gorrila arms and whiskers(3 votes)
- Is there any examples of mutation you can give me? Do mutations count as someone having an odd appearance? Like something that isn't normal?(2 votes)
- can you mix an ostrige and a chicken to get a small ostrige or a big chicken(2 votes)
- it would probably not work in the first place because there are numerous barriers that prevents making hybrid animals. Like the two animals might not be attracted to each other, or even if they produced a child, the chromosome needs to be even. If it doesn't the new hybrid won't be able to breed with others.(0 votes)
- What abouy captain america? With the super soldier serum?(1 vote)
- So, if you were able to identify the modified/mutated nucleotide or gene, is it not possible reconstruct it by overriding it? What I mean is if say, radiation, caused a mutation in a nucleotide that was sending harmful signals for the amino acids can you not 'manually' correct it by intercepting them and giving the proper amino acids for the protein to function? He said by changing the nucleotide that it could still send for the same amino acid. But why not change it altogether by giving the right amino acid?
I'm genuinely curious about this concept and would love some input or further explanation (even if just explanation on if and why I'm wrong lol).(1 vote)
- does this mean i can have ligma in real life ?(2 votes)
- [Instructor] In this video, we're gonna talk a little bit about mutations, and I wanna apologize ahead of time. My voice is a little strange today. I rode more roller coasters than I thought I would yesterday, and I screamed a little bit. But anyway, (chuckles) what we see right over here is what's often known as the central dogma of biology. It explains how we go from information in our DNA, which is really sequences of nucleotides, genes are segments of our DNA that code for specific things. So we see these nucleotides, which we denote with A, C, Gs, and Ts. And every three of them, that's known as a codon, and for every three of them, it's associated with an amino acid. And in other future parts of your biology education, you'll go into more depth on the molecular structures of amino acids. But what you need to know now is the amino acids are essentially strung together. And then they create proteins. And proteins have all sorts of functions in your body. To a large degree, they make you, you. They construct what you are. So this is a simplified version of how we go from DNA, to you, to some degree. Now, mutations, as you might know, even when you watch some movies, these are changes in DNA. You might have seen superheroes be exposed to radiation or some type of chemical, and then they get mutations, and then all of a sudden they have powers. Well, we don't know about too many mutations that create the ability to fly or to stick to walls. But mutations are a way that we get new genetic information in the gene pool. Now you might be saying, wait, I already know about sexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction creates variation. And that's true. Sexual reproduction creates variation but it really just shuffles around the genes and the chromosomes they're on that exist already inside of a gene pool. Mutations are actually changes in the genes. Now, where do these mutations come from? Well, there are sometimes errors when DNA is copied, but can also happen from environmental influences, like radiation or other things. Now, as you can imagine, many times, if you were to just all of a sudden eliminate some nucleotides, or if you were to change them into something else, that might be harmful. All of a sudden it might code for an amino acid here that does not allow this protein to function properly. Sometimes, it can be beneficial. And that's how we can get new versions of genes, alleles, or new genes altogether. All of a sudden this became that, this becomes a different amino acid, maybe this protein functions better. And then as you can imagine, sometimes, it doesn't matter at all. Maybe the different amino acid here really doesn't change the structure of this protein. And in some cases, you can even change a nucleotide and it still codes for the same amino acid.