If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website.

If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked.

Main content
Current time:0:00Total duration:13:29

Video transcript

when you go to the doctor's for a routine checkup they usually start by feeling your neck or sometimes behind of your ears why do they do that what are they checking for and you may have heard of this disease called elephant asses where the limbs of the body like say one of the legs start swelling up what causes this swelling to answer these questions we need to look at the lymphatic system of our body so what is this lymph let's find out to figure out what lymph is let's start with something that we already know the circulatory system it consists of your heart which doesn't look like this I'm pretty sure you know about this but since we are not focusing on the heart let's just keep it this way anyways this heart pumps this oxygen-rich blood through this artery all the way into the blood capillaries this is where the cells of our body starts removing the oxygen from the blood and starts throwing carbon dioxide back into the blood and now the blood is deoxygenated because it no longer has oxygen it has a lot of carbon dioxide and that's why it's shown in blue it goes all the way up through this vein into the heart and then from there goes to purify in the lungs and then it gets purified comes back to the heart and the cycle repeats that's something we've seen before right but now let's talk about something that we haven't seen before okay the first thing is remember that the blood inside the arteries the vessels that take the blood away from the heart so this one in this one they are under pressure right because as the heart squeezes the blood is under pressure which means the blur is pushing on the walls of these arteries and another thing to focus on is that if you were to zoom in to these capillaries so if you were to look at one of those capillaries then we see that the walls of the capillaries have holes in them so now think about it the blood over here is under pressure that means the blood is pushing on the walls and the capillary of that walls the wall of that capillary has holes in them what's going to happen well if you thought that due to the pressure the blood starts oozing out of these holes then you are absolutely right now we will not call this blood because blood contains plasma which contains proteins and then it has RBC's and WBC's and everything right now what use is out is just the plasma all right our B C's can't lose out because the holes are too small for our B C's to go out so our B C's don't lose out the plasma comes out with a little bit of proteins so some small proteins not big ones but some small proteins also whose out along with this plasma okay let me just clean this up a little bit okay so this plasma that oozes out and then fills up this space between the cells this is what we call the lymph all right and it's pronounced it's pronounced pronounced as lymph with a with an F for there so how is lymph different than blood well Liv does not have RBC in it right and as a result lymph it's pretty much colorless okay in fact the word lymph comes from the Latin which means water like water like and why is it called water like because it is pretty much colorless and this means wherever these capillaries are present the plasma will ooze out to form the lymph right and capillaries are found all over our body so you will find this lymph pretty much everywhere inside your body okay so what's the big deal why should we care too much about this well first of all this means that every time blood goes through the capillaries it will start losing some of its plasma that's bad because that means the blood will start getting thicker and thicker because it starts losing plasma and eventually it becomes more and more difficult to circulate it because it's so thick and that means our cells will not get any oxygen and I'm pretty sure you know what would that mean the cells would start dying secondly as this lift starts getting accumulated within our tissues it's that's pushing on the cells and the tissues will start getting puffed up and that causes swellings and that means our organs will start swelling up and that's one of the reasons why in elephant asses our limbs swell up this is because of the accumulation of the lymph or there now before we talk about how our bodies tackle this I'll tell you what I should think about this I should think that this is such a bad design if we don't want the plasma to leak out then why why are there holes present in the capillaries what a bad design right well guess what the holes are necessary because you see cells aren't only exchanging gases like carbon dioxide and oxygen which can easily pass through the walls but they're also exchanging other stuff like nutrients for example glucose also the cells need glucose they get that from the blood itself then the cells produce some vast products like some nitrogenous waste sometimes and that needs to be put back into the blood and for that we need space they can't go through the walls they are big big molecules they can only go through the holes and so capillaries need that holes to exchange this stuff and so since holes are absolutely necessary there's nothing we can do about this plasma leaking out and so the big question is what does your body do about this well thankfully your body has a separate set of vessels which are called lymph vessels which clear out this lymph from your tissues so just like how we have blood vessels and blood capillaries these are called lymph vessels so thick ones are called lymph vessels and the thin ones are called lymph capillaries so over here if I were to show you those lymph capillaries this lymph fluid enters into these capillaries and it clears the lymph out from your tissues now one difference between blood capillaries and lymph capillaries you can immediately see is that blood capillaries connect two blood vessels right there open-ended but as you can see the lymph capillaries they are closed at one end can you see that they're closed and so I was really curious when I was reading this how does the lymph just enter into this lymph capillary it's pretty awesome let me show you how let me get rid of this leg and let me zoom into one of those capillaries all right the cells of these lymph capillaries as you can see have a little bit of overlapping structures that's very important so now when they are surrounded by this lymph fluid in the tissue it's the same lymph fluid over here the fluid starts pressing on the walls so it starts pressing on the walls and I look carefully what happens when the fluid starts pressing on the walls okay these walls open up look at the junction carefully the walls open up like this cool right let me show you one more time the walls open up like this and now the fluid enters the capillary and now if you're wondering why doesn't the fluid just flow back out of through the same opening then once the fluid gets inside it'll start pushing from inside right and as it pushes from inside look at what happens to these walls they will start closing now look carefully they will now close so it's like a one-way door it only allows the fluid in but doesn't allow it to go out and that's how these capillaries clear out the lymph from your tissues so now the next question would be where do these vessels take that fluid eventually where do they put it can you guess this can you guess where they should put it back well since lymph is basically plasma leaking out from with the blood it makes sense to put it back into the blood stream right and so these lymph vessels eventually connect to one of the blood vessels to recycle it back into our circulatory system but a question for you would be do you think we should connect these lymph vessels to an artery or a vein can you pause the video and think about which one would you connect it to all right let's see if we were to connect these to an artery then we would have a hard time trying to force that lymph into the circulatory system cause the arteries the inside the artery the blood is under very heavy pressure right in fact that pressure of the blood would actually force the lymph out back out of these capillaries it might even shatter the walls of the lymph capillaries is gonna be very bad so we wanted to we want to reenter it somewhere where the pressure is very low and that is somewhere in the veins and so the lymph vessels eventually connect to a vein somewhere close to the heart that's where the pressure is the lowest and then it reenters into our circulatory system and this is how the lymph vessels ensure that we get back the lost blood from the capillaries and so let's write this down one of the most important jobs of the lymph vessels is to clear that lymph out so he's going to write clear lymph so it takes the limbs from the tissues and puts it back into the wings and so we are done right because your blood is regaining the lost plasma from the capillaries right well not yet not correct okay and the reason is what if your vessels lymph vessels start picking up something unwanted like say for example your tissues are infected by some pathogens like say some bacteria then when the lymph enters into these vessels even the bacteria might start entering over there and then these bacteria might enter into your bloodstream you don't want any bacteria in your circulatory system that's gonna be pretty bad so what to do don't worry your lymph vessels are awesome they have security points all over them okay these are called lymph nodes let me just write that down lymph nodes and they have a lot of WBC's over there WBC's are like pulleys all right so when the lymph enters into these nodes if there are any unwanted stuff like bacteria the WBC's are going to kill it this will make sure that no unwanted stuff enters your bloodstream it's pretty cool right and so you see these lymph vessels also help in killing unwanted stuff from your body so they also help in immunity so they help in immunity that's pretty cool and guess what if any of your lymph vessels pick up a lot of bacteria then a lot of WBC's will gather in that lymph node and that node will now swell which means swollen nodes are an early indication of infections and that's what the doctors are checking for when they are feeling your neck it turns out there are a lot of these nodes near your neck and your ears and so they touch that and see if any of those are swollen if they are swollen good chance there's an infection somewhere now before we wind up another important job that your lymph vessels have is to transport fat into your bloodstream somebody's going to write transport fat for short into your bloodstream and what I mean by this is imagine you have your small intestine somewhere over here all your food gets digested and then they come out of the small intestine and most of the nutrients can directly enter into the capillaries through these holes and that's how the nutrients enter your bloodstream and then they are circulated to all the cells but the digested fats which come out of your intestine are just too big to enter into these capillaries so they can't directly enter the bloodstream so they are again picked up by the lymph vessels or the lymph capillaries then they go through the lymphatic system and then they reach the bloodstream and so that's how the fat enters your bloodstream through the lymphatic system so what did we learn in this video we talked about the awesome lymphatic system of our body which consists of the lymph the lymph nodes and the lymph vessels the lymph is basically the plasma that leaks out of your capillaries due to blood pressure this lymph is picked up by these lymph vessels which recycle it back into our circulatory system through the veins and the lymph nodes act like security to make sure that no pathogens enter our blood dream and finally the lymph vessels found near the small intestine help in transporting these digested fat into our bloodstream as well