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Cyanotic heart diseases - Diagnosis and treatment

Video transcript

I don't know if you've noticed this but out of all the congenital heart diseases the ones that are cyanotic begin with the letter T conjunct the cyanotic heart disease we had tetralogy of flow we have T a PV RLS have to take a second to say that total anomalous pulmonary venous return we have truncus arteriosus drunkest where we have lack of differentiation between the two great vessels we have transposition where the two great vessels are plugged in the opposite way that it should be and we have tricuspid atresia see all these begin with a T this makes it much easier to remember all these ones make the baby blue the diagnosis of all these diseases can be summarized in one word and that's echo or echocardiogram that basically an ultrasound of the heart echocardiogram this is done as early as when the baby's in mommy's belly and we can see exactly what a heart defect they have and what struck me when I was on a month of rotation on pediatric cardiology is that we learn these different abnormalities separately but rarely do people have just one I feel like almost every baby I saw had two or three so we always have to echo to see exactly where each chamber of the heart is exactly how each vessel is plugged in so the echo really gives us a 3d picture of what we're dealing with and it's usually done more than once and repeatedly after the baby's born to see how things are changing and progressing in treatment these days it's surgery surgery surgery pediatric cardiology I feel like works very closely with surgery now whether or not someone needs surgery depends on their Anatomy through the echo and also through their physical exam inside from surgery there are certain medicines that we can use before after with the procedure to our cause a medicine usually is not enough on its own to correct these defects but it can help for example we can have I know tropic drugs that help the heart work a little harder or we can decrease the resistance that the heart is working against by dilating our vessels making them giving them a greater diameter so the heart can have an easier time getting blood through things like that and lastly of course the pediatric cardiologists still do use their stethoscopes to monitor the patient's progress so they listen usually there are a lot of murmurs involved and the change in the murmurs can tell us how a particular defect is progressing because they treat they can change from day to day and one of the most important things that tell us exactly what that heart is doing is to monitor the oxygen saturation these patients are usually almost permanently stuck to a probe that tells us what percentage of oxygen is in their blood which can tell us how well the heart is functioning how much blood is going to the lungs versus the body before after surgery we always care about the oxygenation there's not much more I can say about this because the treatment for cyanotic heart disease is almost always different on a case-by-case basis but in general remember that they begin with T's we need to echo to see the structure usually there's some sort of surgery done in addition to medicines and we care about how the heart is sounding and what percent of oxygen is in their blood