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Current time:0:00Total duration:9:55

What is inside a digital camera? (1 of 2)

Video transcript

okay so here's our Vivitar vivvy cam camera and we're going to take it apart and show you how it works we've got the batteries here and there's the on switch and now that we have the camera on we're going to take a few photos you can see the LCD display is showing what's going on there and letting us see the pictures now the LCD is backlit with an LED which is an LCD stands for liquid crystal display and LED stands for light emitting diode so let's go ahead and get cracking we'll take it apart take all the screws out that are holding the two halves of the camera together so we'll remove the top part and the that's likely made out of ABS and there's a electroplated bezel that surrounds the lens of the camera it's screwed in place and that's also probably ABS plated abs and now let's go and take a look at what's what the cameras latch looks like and what it's made out we've got some looks like chrome-plated stamp steel connected to a spring and that feeds the electricity from the underside of the backside of the batteries to the board and so that's where the positive connection on the board is and the negative connection is up at the top so we're going to remove the pin and we can take the latch out now now we're you can slide the latch back and forth you can see how it moves again this is plated steel you can see there's four little connections on there we'll talk about those in a second but let's remove this back piece this isn't just a simple insert and I think it's a probably heat staked in place and what what that means it's really low-cost way to attach things this metal pieces as well you can see those four points there they're heat staked in and it is mchte at it is magnetic so it's it's a plated steel and so now we're going to remove the screws that are connecting the plastic bezel that surrounds the camera and connects the two sides and so you can see it's just an injection-molded piece and I believe that that material is abs but again it didn't have a plastic designation on it so it's not 100% it could be a polypropylene or maybe styrene polystyrene so there's the on button in the off button I should say the on button and the shutterbug and they trigger they push down and trigger the membrane switches which are which are mounted on our printed circuit board or a piece of the printed circuit board that's connected so now let's take out the screws that are holding the board in place and we try to remove the screws for our tripod mount but one of them is stripped so we're just going to leave it in place and I think we'll just pop the the back out there and we'll take a look at the two switch covers these switches are injection molded and then they are painted and then heat staked in place and so you can see the silver colors from the paint and the heat state process is basically the plastic just a little tab on the end of the plastic is melted against the outer part of the housing and again it's just a really low-cost way to hold the switches in place and keep them above their membrane switches so you can see which ones go with which these are the that's the on/off switch and this is the selector button these selector buttons allow you to scroll through pictures and then we have a menu and a play button so this is our step by step of what happens when you take a photo so you the first thing that happens is the lens right here collects some light so let's take a look at how that happens so the light's going to come down from the Sun hit Billy come in to reflect off of him going through the lens get focused on our image sensor and when it does that it's going to a path through these two filters and at this point photons are what's conveying the information so it's just the reflected light that's conveying the information to our image sensor so it's going through the lens and our filters and so we have an infrared filter here and the infrared filter is basically helps to it keeps the infrared out and that that can affect the image I have a bear color filter the bear color filter is right on top of the image sensor and it basically breaks the sensor up into what looks like a checkerboard of red green and blue and there's there's twice as many green as there is red and blue because our eyes are sensitive to more sensitive to some colors than to others and so the Bayer filter allows us to get color information from our image sensor so there's two types of image sensors there's a CCD or charge couple of and a CMOS or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor now the CCD tends to have less noise than the CMOS and it tends to have be a little bit more expensive and the components for doing the analog processing are not mounted on the board they're they're usually not they're not on the board they're off of the board now the CMOS has the components that some of the transistors for doing the analog processing on the board and they are so the CMOS tends to be a lot less expensive it also tends to have take a lot less power and it tends to have more noise so the image quality quality tends to be less but again there are exceptions if you get a really expensive CMOS chip or really inexpensive ccd this information may not apply these are just sort of general guidelines the light hits the image sensor and it is converted into analog electrical signals those electrical signals are sent to a digital to analog converter and then the digital signals you can see those represented by the ones and zeros are sent to the digital image processor so the digital image processor on this particular camera is underneath the screen it's it's represented while it's underneath the black blob to the black blob is actually epoxy and it's put on the board too it's kind of a low-cost way to protect the processor and so anyway the processors involved in the mosaicing which means that it takes the information from that was created by the color filter and the individual pixels and it a ver ajiz those to create a smoother image and it uses a software algorithm to do that you can see there's a little hair that's represented there in the super zoomed in view of Billy okay and can also be used for Jake JPEG conversion and other things so the memory buffer on our camera is on the on the other side here you can see it it's right there it's the big chip and the memory buffer takes the images and stores them before they're sent to the the memory card controller or the octal latch here and that that basically acts as like the traffic control for the data going to the flash memory and so the flash memory is this chip right here and the flash memory is where all the data is stored on this particular camera now most cameras have detachable flash memory this one it's built-in and that's probably because it was cheaper than than buying a connector so the LCD display you can see is right there and that's what displays the image and then there's our USB connector and of course you can hook a wire and connect that to the computer and then print out the image as well that's another way of getting your your final image look at some other components this is the speaker it's a piezo speaker and it produces a high frequency sound when you push the buttons and it just gives you some auditory feedback to let you know that the button has been successfully depressed and the board itself is made out of a cloth laminate material and so if you look at the other components on the board let's see there's an LED here and another one here and those LEDs indicate both when the camera is on and also when a photo has been taken so let's take a look at on this side of the board there's a little silver device and that's a that's a quartz timer and the timer helps to synchronize all the functions on the board it's used by the microprocessor to do that you can see the resistors and capacitors here the resistors are usually denoted by the R and the capacitors by the C and they can be used together to both filter noise have an influence on some of the timing functions they can also be used to protect various circuits on the board and various components so these components here are power components and they take the power from the battery and and and make it more usable for the camera and you can see the traces here the top the whole top of the board is covered in copper and then the coppers edged away in the places that you don't need wire connections so the wire connections are made with copper that's left and you can have connections between all the different components there on the board so we're going to open up our screen and see what's on the inside so on the inside of the screen there is a LED and an NA dye or a resistor and the resistor protects the led and you've got a clear piece of plastic and then a white reflector in the back and then there's a a white diffuser diffuser it's a thin piece of plastic right here and these pieces and then there's also a reflective part to the screen these pieces are all designed to sort of bounce the light around and help to diffuse evenly since there's only one point of light created by that LED you want to make sure that the image is is evenly lit on the back and the LCD display is in the top and it's a you know sandwiched between two pieces of glass and those pieces of glass have the liquid crystals inside you can sort of see that by the the smoky color there you can see through it just a little bit and they light up are they I should say they turn different colors and are lighted by the LED behind them to display the image when you take a picture or when you go through your images thanks to everybody who provided constructive feedback on the previous video we're always looking for ways to improve