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- [Voiceover] We're now ready to start the study of circuit analysis and to design circuits and analyze circuits, one of the things we need to do is have something to build circuits with and that's what we're gonna talk about in this video. The idea is we're gonna have three circuit elements. These circuit elements are called resistor, capacitor, i-tor, and inductor. Okay, these are the three passive or two-element components or circuit elements that we're gonna use to design a lot of different kinds of circuits. First, I want to introduce a symbol for each one of these so we can talk about it and making drawings of it and first is gonna be the resistor. Resistor symbol looks like this. It's a zigzag line like that representing current going through and being resisted having to do some work. Another symbol for resistor looks like this used in other parts of the world besides the United States and Japan. That's what a resistor looks like and the symbol we use is R. Now for the capacitor, capacitor symbol is actually a capacitor's built from two conductors or metal objects that are placed close together and most capacitors sort of look like that when they're actually built and the symbol for capacitor is a C. And finally for the inductor, we'll do inductors like this. An inductor is actually built from a coil of wire and so when we draw an inductor symbol, we draw a little coil of wire like that and the symbol is L which is a little odd. It could be called i but the symbol for i was already taken by current which is from the French for intensity and we couldn't use C for current because the C is used here so it's a little quirk of our nomenclature. All right. Each of these components has an equation that goes along with it that relates the voltage to the current. Now, I'm gonna go back here. I'm gonna label the voltages and currents on here in a very important convention for drawing circuits. Let's do that. When we talk about the voltage on a component, we can label it however we want, plus-minus V, and we draw the current going in. I'll just label a little i there and we'll do it on all these. The current goes into the positive terminal. The current goes into the positive terminal so that's a V on the capacitor and finally, and the current goes in and we're gonna be very consistent about this and that's gonna keep us from making mistakes. All right, so let's go back to our resistor and we're gonna do the equation for a resistor. What is the I-V equation for a resistor? I-V equation means what relates current to voltage and for a resistor, it's V equals i times R so the voltage across the resistor is equal to the current through the resistor times this constant of proportionality that we call the resistance. This has a very important name. This is called Ohm's law and you're gonna use this a lot so that's Ohm's law right there. This is Ohm's law. Now for the IV relationship for the capacitor, the capacitor has that property that the current through the capacitor is proportional to the rate of change of the voltage, not to the voltage but to the rate of change of the voltage and the way we write that is current equals, C is the proportionality constant, and we write dv, dt so this is the rate of change of voltage with respect to time. We multiply that by this property of this device called capacitance and that gives us the current. This doesn't have a special name but I'm gonna refer to it as the capacitor equation so now we have two equations. Let's do the third equation which is for the inductor. The inductor has the property very similar to the capacitor. It has the property that the voltage across is proportional to the time rate of change of the current flowing through the inductor so this is a similar but opposite of how a capacitor works. The voltage is proportional to the time rate of change of current and the way we write that is voltage equals L, di, dt. The voltage is proportional. The proportionality constant is the inductants. The inductance of the inductor and this is the time rate of change of voltage, OH sorry, the time rate of change of current flowing through the inductor so this gives us our three equations. Here they are. These are three element equations and we're gonna use these all the time, right there, those three equations. One final point I wanna make is for both these equations of components, these are ideal, ideal components. That means these things are mathematical perfect things that we have in our minds that we're gonna try to build in the real world but we'll come close. We'll come very close. We now have a wonderful set of equations: V equals iR, i equals C, dv, dt. v equals L, di, dt. These are gonna be like poetry for you pretty soon and these ideal equations will produce all kinds of really cool circuits for us.