C3, C4, and CAM plants
- Photorespiration is a wasteful pathway that occurs when the Calvin cycle enzyme rubisco acts on oxygen rather than carbon dioxide.
- The majority of plants are plants, which have no special features to combat photorespiration.
- plants minimize photorespiration by separating initial fixation and the Calvin cycle in space, performing these steps in different cell types.
- Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants minimize photorespiration and save water by separating these steps in time, between night and day.
Comparisons of , , and CAM plants
|Type||Separation of initial fixation and Calvin cycle||Stomata open||Best adapted to|
|No separation||Day||Cool, wet environments|
|Between mesophyll and bundle-sheath cells (in space)||Day||Hot, sunny environments|
|CAM||Between night and day (in time)||Night||Very hot, dry environments|