- If the sugar has an aldehyde group, meaning that the carbonyl C is the last one in the chain, it is known as an aldose.
- If the carbonyl C is internal to the chain, so that there are other carbons on both sides of it, it forms a ketone group and the sugar is called a ketose.
Glucose and its isomers
Ring forms of sugars
- Amylose consists entirely of unbranched chains of glucose monomers connected by linkages.
- Amylopectin is a branched polysaccharide. Although most of its monomers are connected by linkages, additional linkages occur periodically and result in branch points.