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All of the following terms appear in the videos or article for this tutorial on biodiversity fieldwork. The terms are arranged here in alphabetical order, and nouns are given in just their singular form unless the plural of the term is unusual.

binomial nomenclature: a system of naming each type of organism, consisting of the two-part scientific name that is unique for each species; the first word identifies the genus of the organism and the second word signifies the species; taken together, both words constitute the name of the species; they are written in italics, and only the genus name is capitalized; sometimes also called the Latin name, Latin binomial, or species name

biodiversity: the variety of life on Earth or some specified geographic area of the planet; the diversity of life occurs at the genetic level, at the species level, at the ecosystem level, and in evolutionary lineages

canopy: in general, an overhead covering; in forest ecology, the top layer of leaves of the trees in a forest; the crowns of the trees

citizen science: a form of public participation in scientific research in which members of the public help collect and analyze data to help scientists answer research questions on different projects; a citizen scientist is a person who participates in a citizen science project

data: information note that data is a plural word; if you have just one piece of information, it is a datum (singular)

database: a collection or set of data on a particular topic; the data are organized or compiled in a specific way to make use and analyses easier

distribution: in general, the pattern or way that something is spread out; in species, the geographical places or areas around the world where a given species lives; similar to the range of the species

dredge: a machine or piece of equipment used to remove sand, mud or gravel from the bottom of a waterway such as a river, channel or harbor; can also be used as a verb to refer to the act of bringing up something from underwater

drone: as used in reference to technology, an unmanned aircraft; can be used in remote sensing to collect environmental information

ethanol: a type of alcohol; also called ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol; has many uses including as a solvent, as an antiseptic and as a preservative for specimens that have been collected; is also the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages

evolution: the changes in heritable traits of a population over time

expedition: a journey or voyage with a specific purpose

Geographic Information System (GIS): a computer-based tool for creating maps using a variety of geographic information sources; sometimes used synonymously with GPS (Global Positioning System), but they are not the same; GPS uses satellites as reference points to determine the location of something; these location data can then be used by GIS to create maps and the precise latitude and longitude coordinates

ground truthing: having experts gather data in the field in person to compare to data collected by remote sensing techniques

latitude: geographic coordinates that run parallel to the equator; for example, northern latitudes are north of the equator

liquid nitrogen: nitrogen at an extremely low temperature that is in a liquid state; is used to preserve, by rapid freezing, some specimens for future molecular analysis

molecular: referring to molecules; molecules are made up of two or more atoms; molecular biology is the type of science that studies the molecular aspects of life, including DNA and genetics

multidisciplinary: in general, involving several different disciplines or specialized aspects; in reference to scientific research or expeditions, having experts from many different areas or disciplines working together, such as botany, entomology, ichthyology, mammalogy, etc.

natural selection: a process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than others of the same species; leads to evolution

ornithologist: a person who studies birds

parasitism: a type of symbiosis in which one organism (the parasite) benefits by living in or on the organism that is harmed (the host)

parasitology: the study of parasites

permit: as a verb, to give permission or allow something to happen; as a general noun, an official document that allows a person to do something; for expeditions, an official and legally binding document that gives scientists permission to  collect certain types of organisms at a species place at a specific time

population: all the individuals of a particular species that live in a specific geographic area; a species may be made up of one or more populations

population size: the number of individuals in a particular population of organisms

range: the geographic places or areas around the world in which a species lives; similar to the distribution of the species

remote sensing: obtaining information about environments, geographic areas or organisms through machines such as satellites or remote-controlled cameras without humans coming in contact with the area or organisms

spatial analyses: a general term that refers to techniques used to study and visualize the distribution or location of something, especially in reference to something else

species: a distinct type of organism

species richness: the number of different species in a given geographic area

systematics: the study of the diversity of life, both past and present, and the 
evolutionary relationships among organisms through time; closely related to, but not synonymous with taxonomy

taxonomy: the science of naming organisms and defining groups of organisms based on shared physical and molecular characteristics; closely related to, but not synonymous with systematics

terrestrial: pertaining to the land

Wunderkammer: in German, a wonder room; a room that had collections of natural objects on display