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Glossary: biodiversity fieldwork

All of the following terms appear in the videos or article for this tutorial on biodiversity fieldwork. The terms are arranged here in alphabetical order, and nouns are given in just their singular form unless the plural of the term is unusual.
binomial nomenclature: a system of naming each type of organism, consisting of the two-part scientific name that is unique for each species; the first word identifies the genus of the organism and the second word signifies the species; taken together, both words constitute the name of the species; they are written in italics, and only the genus name is capitalized; sometimes also called the Latin name, Latin binomial, or species name
biodiversity: the variety of life on Earth or some specified geographic area of the planet; the diversity of life occurs at the genetic level, at the species level, at the ecosystem level, and in evolutionary lineages
canopy: in general, an overhead covering; in forest ecology, the top layer of leaves of the trees in a forest; the crowns of the trees
citizen science: a form of public participation in scientific research in which members of the public help collect and analyze data to help scientists answer research questions on different projects; a citizen scientist is a person who participates in a citizen science project
data: information note that data is a plural word; if you have just one piece of information, it is a datum (singular)
database: a collection or set of data on a particular topic; the data are organized or compiled in a specific way to make use and analyses easier
distribution: in general, the pattern or way that something is spread out; in species, the geographical places or areas around the world where a given species lives; similar to the range of the species
dredge: a machine or piece of equipment used to remove sand, mud or gravel from the bottom of a waterway such as a river, channel or harbor; can also be used as a verb to refer to the act of bringing up something from underwater
drone: as used in reference to technology, an unmanned aircraft; can be used in remote sensing to collect environmental information
ethanol: a type of alcohol; also called ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol; has many uses including as a solvent, as an antiseptic and as a preservative for specimens that have been collected; is also the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages
evolution: the changes in heritable traits of a population over time
expedition: a journey or voyage with a specific purpose
Geographic Information System (GIS): a computer-based tool for creating maps using a variety of geographic information sources; sometimes used synonymously with GPS (Global Positioning System), but they are not the same; GPS uses satellites as reference points to determine the location of something; these location data can then be used by GIS to create maps and the precise latitude and longitude coordinates
ground truthing: having experts gather data in the field in person to compare to data collected by remote sensing techniques
latitude: geographic coordinates that run parallel to the equator; for example, northern latitudes are north of the equator
liquid nitrogen: nitrogen at an extremely low temperature that is in a liquid state; is used to preserve, by rapid freezing, some specimens for future molecular analysis
molecular: referring to molecules; molecules are made up of two or more atoms; molecular biology is the type of science that studies the molecular aspects of life, including DNA and genetics
multidisciplinary: in general, involving several different disciplines or specialized aspects; in reference to scientific research or expeditions, having experts from many different areas or disciplines working together, such as botany, entomology, ichthyology, mammalogy, etc.
natural selection: a process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than others of the same species; leads to evolution
ornithologist: a person who studies birds
parasitism: a type of symbiosis in which one organism (the parasite) benefits by living in or on the organism that is harmed (the host)
parasitology: the study of parasites
permit: as a verb, to give permission or allow something to happen; as a general noun, an official document that allows a person to do something; for expeditions, an official and legally binding document that gives scientists permission to  collect certain types of organisms at a species place at a specific time
population: all the individuals of a particular species that live in a specific geographic area; a species may be made up of one or more populations
population size: the number of individuals in a particular population of organisms
range: the geographic places or areas around the world in which a species lives; similar to the distribution of the species
remote sensing: obtaining information about environments, geographic areas or organisms through machines such as satellites or remote-controlled cameras without humans coming in contact with the area or organisms
spatial analyses: a general term that refers to techniques used to study and visualize the distribution or location of something, especially in reference to something else
species: a distinct type of organism
species richness: the number of different species in a given geographic area
systematics: the study of the diversity of life, both past and present, and the evolutionary relationships among organisms through time; closely related to, but not synonymous with taxonomy
taxonomy: the science of naming organisms and defining groups of organisms based on shared physical and molecular characteristics; closely related to, but not synonymous with systematics
terrestrial: pertaining to the land
Wunderkammer: in German, a wonder room; a room that had collections of natural objects on display

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