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Current time:0:00Total duration:6:04

Video transcript

as we've talked about in other videos by the time we get into the 15th century t mores Persia and Central Asia has been fragmented you have many of Tim Moore's descendants with their own kingdoms especially in Central Asia in 1483 in the Central Asian city of on Daejeon now part of Eastern whose Becca Stan you have one of T Moors grandsons great grandsons born Babur and at the age of 12 Babur takes the throne of Fergana after the death of his father now over the next few decades he tries to consolidate control he tries to take control of summer Kund loses control and then a forgotten and keeps repeatedly losing control early in the sixteenth century he is able to take kabul and then it decides to focus on India instead of Central Asia in 1526 famously with the use of cannons which had not been used in a significant way in the Indian subcontinent until that time barber was able to defeat ibrahim lodi of the delhi sultanate and come to power in northern india and you can see in this blue gray color this is the territory that barber was able to rule over until his death in 1530 mogul is just the Persian word for Mongol remember barber is a descendant of Timur who is a Turk Oh Mongolian conqueror on his mother's side he claims the Senate seat from gingy's Khan but Persian is the language of his court and so it significantly increases the Persian influence in North Indian culture after his death his son Humayun comes to power Humayun has difficulty retaining power he has various family rivalries to contend with and eventually he is dethroned by the Pashtun Suri dynasty he goes to the Safavids and with their health is able to retake control but then trips on stairs and dies and then his ugh Berg comes to power now Akbar is perhaps most famous of all of the Mughal rulers as you can see he is able to rule over India for some time as just mentioned who my own essentially had to re conquer retake the throne and his hold on power was relatively weak but now Akbar is able to expand the territory that you see in this light purple mow color he's able to increase the central authority and perhaps most importantly he tries to unify India culturally the moguls are Muslim and are relatively tolerant up through uh kamuran to some degree Jahangir of other religions but Akbar takes a very pluralistic approach he's famous for holding court with religious scholars throughout the empire and even trying to merge the religions creating what some would consider a religion of his own that would later be called deen allahi the religion of God many Jain and Hindu principles appealed to him he becomes a vegetarian he bans the slaughtering of cows at his death in 1605 his son Jahangir comes to power historians consider Jahangir to be relatively tolerant like aqua and to continue the interest in the sciences and the arts that you saw in the Mughal court under Akbar but he's a little bit more controversial as we talked about in the Sikhism video he famously tortures and executes guru arjan's some would say it was because it was because guru Arjun was siding with Jahangir son who was trying to rebel others would say that it was because Guru Arjun was getting a following in Punjab and the Jahangir was insecure of his own hold on power and decided to execute Goren but he is succeeded by his son Shah Jahan who becomes decisively less tolerant his reign however is known as the Golden Age of Mughal architecture with the crowning achievement arguably the Raj Mahal which is a mausoleum that he Commission's in the 1630s to house the body of his dead wife as you can see here it's housed in Agra and Agra and Delhi at various points during the Mughal Empire are the capital there's a few moments when it is at Lahore he is eventually imprisoned by his son Aurangzeb Aurangzeb is considered a very strong and authoritarian ruler you can see here that he is able to expand the territory of the Mughal Empire well into South India at its maximum extent the Mughal Empire is now rivaling the amount of territory that was controlled by the Maurya Empire roughly two thousand years before this time despite being the last truly strong Mughal emperor he's also known as the least tolerant of the Emperor's after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 he succeeded by weaker and weaker Mughal rulers the 18th century you see a significant decline in the power of the Mughals the territory they have Delhi is famously sacked by Navi shah the persian conqueror as we get into the second half of the 18th century the british are able to chip away more and more and more territory not just from the Mughals but from other Indian rulers as well which we will see in future videos