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Current time:0:00Total duration:10:29

Video transcript

we are now going to go further in our study of the evolution of the empires in Asia and in this video we're going to focus on what happens in North India Persia the Middle East and the Anatolian Peninsula what we would consider modern-day Turkey so right here is roughly what Asia looked like around the Year 1300 as you might remember from previous videos as we entered into the 13th century you have Genghis Khan or Genji's Khan take over much of Asia from Mongolia but by the time you get to 1300 the Empire has fragmented into these various khanates the Wan dynasty in China Shikata Khanate in Central Asia the Golden Horde in Northwest Asia and the ilkhanate in Persia and the Middle East now two things to keep note of as we look at this map that are relevant to this video is notice this tiny little kingdom right over here this is one of the many fragmented kingdoms that result after the sultanate of rûm collapses in the middle of the 13th century this kingdom in particular is founded by someone by the name of Oman or the Arabic version of the name would be Ottoman or ottoman and so this is the nascent Ottoman Empire forming right over here now over here you have the Delhi Sultanate which was the first significant Muslim empire over North India and notably they were one of the few empires that were able to fend off the Mongols but now let's fast-forward roughly 100 years now a few things have changed the ming dynasty has taken over the wan dynasty in the middle of the 14th century the mongols in the east are now relegated to the northern one dynasty but there still is the shock attack on 8th and the golden horde but much of their territory including the ill akane has now been taken over by timur we talked about in previous videos and timur famously sacked delhi and really brought the delhi sultanate to its knees and as we will see it will only last for roughly another hundred years now you might also notice that the Ottoman Empire founded by Osman or ottoman is continuing to grow and continuing to conquer now one thing to keep in mind in previous videos we talked about the invention of gunpowder in tongue china and the early Song Dynasty which was about four to five hundred years before the period that we're talking about right now but as we get into this period we are now starting to see the use of gunpowder for guns and in particular artillery when I say artillery think cannons so let's fast forward another two hundred years to see how the empires of Asia have evolved so now we see several things the Ming Dynasty is still in control of much of China the northern one are still in Mongolia you have a Kazakh Khanate descendent from the Mongols by the late 16th and early 17th century the Ottoman Empire has now expanded significantly encompassing much of the Middle East in Persia you see that the timurid empire fell within a few decades after the death of Tim war and as we entered into the 16th century you have the Safavid dynasty takeover and then also in the 16th century almost coincident with the founding of the Safavid dynasty in persia you have Tim Moore's grandsons great-grandson bobbler who's born in current-day who's Becca stan is able to defeat the delhi sultanate and establish the Mughal Empire and Mogul is just the Persian word for Mongol and Babur is a direct descendant of Timur on his father's side and of Genghis Khan on his mother's side now many historians often group these three empires or together because they do share some commonalities and so let's think about each of them individually and think about where they are similar and where they are different not a lot is known about us man who found that first Kingdom in the Anatolian Peninsula it's a Sunni Islamic empire in fact the leader is eventually named a caliph the ruling class of this Empire is Turkish now one of their distinguishing characteristics is what's known as the dev Sherman system in which the Sultan the Emperor would have a personal army of what could be called slaves these Janissaries these Janissaries were actually christian boys taken at a young age and then indoctrinated into the Janissary system the reason why I said you can kind of call them slaves is that although they were forced to become Janissaries and taken from their families they were given many privileges and over time many of these Janissaries became some of the most notable figures in the Ottoman Empire some of them even becoming the Grand Vizier effectively ruling over the Empire now the Ottomans are also known for one of the earliest empires - very successfully to use gunpowder in battle the Safavids as you can see here were really founded in the very early 16th century officially 1501 by their founder Shah is smile sometimes known as smile the first and he is the heir to a religious dynasty the Safa vias it is a Muslim dynasty like the Ottoman Empire but unlike the Ottoman Empire it is based on Twelver Shia Islam Twelver Shia is the major group of Shias today and it is based on the belief of 12 Imams following Mohammed starting with Ali and we have videos on the Sunni Shia split now even though a smile spoke Turkish and was raised in a Turkic xiety this dynasty brought back much of the culture of ancient Persia in fact it's viewed as the first dynasty since the sassanids that actually had native Persian rule and brought back that Persian culture part of which is using the word Shah you remember Cyrus the Great the Shah and Shah the king of kings now they had what is known as gulam's which is very similar to the idea of a Janissary these are slaves soldiers which are taken as captives but then are raised to be an elite military unit and eventually often have significant wealth and significant power now you might be wondering why did any of these empires and these are the only ones you have the mom looks in other Muslim empires why would people create these elite soldiers out of slaves and give them that much power well the answer is they were the safest people to give power to remember these empires are ruling over many tribes and many groups and many kingdoms that are constantly vying for power trying to establish their own dynasties and if you allowed people from those various tribes to protect you as Emperor well there might be a good shot that one of them might want to kill you and establish their own dynasty but from a young age if you could indoctrinate these young boys as gloms or as Janissaries well they might be more loyal to you and indeed it did provide an unusual amount of stability as I mentioned the Mughal Empire was able to be founded by Babur who was Tim Moore's great grandsons grandson and he too was born in a Turko Mongolian tradition as he is able to famously defeat the Delhi Sultanate which is which was had already been significantly weakened one on its own but then by Tim were over a hundred years before he famously comes to power with the aid of gunpowder being able to defeat a significantly larger Delhi Sultanate army the Moghuls practiced Sunni Islam but they ruled over a large Hindu majority and so the first several Mughal rulers were actually quite tolerant perhaps the most tolerant was up bir often on its Akbar the Great who will do other videos on who actually tried to create a religion which was a merger between Islam and Hinduism and Jainism and Christianity but then they become less tolerant under Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb shah jahan famous for building the Taj Mahal for his wife but was often not noted is he was building this fairly grand mausoleum at a time when there was a famine in India and he was also known as being fairly intolerant and persecuted many Hindus and Sikhs and his son Aurangzeb continued to do so now some historians will refer to these three empires as the gunpowder empires if someone says gunpowder empires they're referring to these three the reason why they're call that is this view that these major centralized empires were able to form only with the power of gunpowder the Ottomans fame is for early use of artillery the moguls Babur in particular came to power with gunpowder but today historians are somewhat skeptical of grouping just these three empires as gunpowder empires you had many other large centralized empires form before the use of gunpowder so that whole thesis is not as popular today