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"Culturally Frankish society in the East remained basically provincial and thoroughly dependent on Europe. The Islamic influence which was so fruitful in Spain and Sicily was rigidly excluded in Outremer [Crusader states in the Holy Land]. The Franks coexisted with the Muslims but there was no symbiosis [cultural blending]. The number of those from the upper ranks of society who bothered to learn Arabic was tiny. Their everyday language (...) was French. (...) Only in superficial matters, dress, medicine, and domestic comforts was there any willingness to learn from Islam. "