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Current time:0:00Total duration:8:46

Video transcript

where we left off in the last video we had seen what would eventually be called the first Crusades and it was from a European point of view seemed successful they were able to take back much of the Holy Land from Muslim rule the Byzantine Empire was able to take back a significant chunk of the Anatolian Peninsula from the Seljuk Turks who are also Muslim and over the next few decades this European rule over the Holy Land only gets consolidated this is a zoomed in version of it what it looked like and you can see these Crusader states that were set up or these Crusader kingdoms and as I pointed out in the last video even though the Crusades were apparently to help the Byzantines reclaim land as you can see when the Crusaders took the Holy Land they for the most part kept it for themselves and set up these kingdoms so we are about here we are about here on our timeline now as we fast-forward a little over a decade as we get to the middle of the 12th century you do have the Muslims being able to take back some of the territory in particular Odessa and Aleppo and so this bonds what will eventually be known as the Second Crusade and it's really the second of many Crusades now these are what historians consider the official numbered Crusades but there are many other Crusades in this time period and roughly this 200 year time period during the high middle ages you had Crusades against Germanic non-christians in northern Europe you had Crusades in Spain in order to retake land from the Muslims which they had for several hundred years what's known as the Reconquista so after Aleppo and Edessa were taken you have the second Crusades which end up being quite unsuccessful and it really doesn't change what the Middle East looks like but then as you get to the end of the 12th century you have a significant event in 1187 you have the sultan Salah add-in often known as Saladin being able to retake Jerusalem and much of the holy land remember this is after roughly 90 years of rule of Jerusalem by the Western Europeans by these Crusader kingdoms so this really strikes a chord with the West and so they decide to launch what what will be known as the Third Crusade the Third Crusade does make some gains in fact this is a crusade that gets a significant buy-in from the kings of Western Europe Philip the second the France gets involved the English King Richard the first or Richard the Lionheart gets involved the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa gets involved when I say Holy Roman Emperor and the Empire you should really think of medieval Germany now as they go there Frederick Barbarossa he drowns in a river this is very dispiriting for his soldiers so many of them turn around but philip ii and richard the lionheart are able to engage with Salah add-in and they are able to gain some land in particular the region around Accra and they're able to get some concessions from Salah add-in for unarmed Christian pilgrims to visit the holy land especially Jerusalem now Saladin dies as we approach the end of the 12th century so in the beginning of the 13th century the fourth Crusades get launched and these are interesting because the Crusaders with the help of Venetian traders they actually engage with the claimant to the throne of the Byzantine Empire with the hope that if they can help them come back to the throne that they can provide them the necessary resources in order to continue on with the Crusades well they are able to put the claimant on the throne but then if uprising takes that claimant down from the throne and so the Crusaders don't get their payment but they want that payment badly and so they decide to take Constantinople themselves and as we mentioned in other videos this is really the dagger in the heart between the relationship between the east and the West we already talked about the Great Schism of 1054 but now you have the West who are followers of the Latin Church which eventually gets known as the Roman Catholic Church they are sacking Constantinople the capital of the business or the eastern roman empire the most important city in eastern Christendom and once they successfully sack the city in bloody fashion they break up the Byzantine Empire amongst themselves and you can see how they break it up so the Fourth Crusade had very little effect on the actual Holy Land but it does cause a temporary end to the Byzantine Empire as we get to 1261 Constantinople is retaken by the Byzantines but once again this is the beginning of the end of the Byzantine Empire the fact that for half a century it was taken over by the West so you can imagine what Jerusalem stone the hands of the Muslims many in the West are not satisfied and in 1212 an interesting event may have occurred there are some accounts of what is known as a Children's Crusade the stories of the children crusade or is that a child and there's different accounts as to exactly the story but something to the effect that Jesus has told them to go with other pure children to the Holy Land and convert the Muslims to Christianity and so then they go on this March and there's tens of thousands of children but they don't make it to the Holy Land they either die of starvation or they get sold into slavery on the way historians today aren't sure whether it really happened as that account implies that's why I put these question mark next to the Children's Crusade but regardless of the actual facts here as we go into the first quarter of the 13th century Jerusalem remains in the hands of the Muslims if Fifth Crusade is launched to retake Jerusalem which is a failure eventually a sixth Crusade is launched and this is reasonably successful at retaking some land in the Holy Land but shortly that thereafter you have a non numbered Crusade the Baron's crusade that rivals the First Crusade in its success in taking territory and so you can see after the Barons crusade right over here they're able to take back a good amount of territory but then in 1244 Jerusalem is retaken by the Muslims and then you have the seventh and eighth and ninth crusade afterwards and you have these other efforts that are sometimes called Crusades but for the most part these are unsuccessful and as we get into the end of the 13th and early 14th centuries the Holy Land falls back under Muslim control this is a map of the region as we enter into the 14th century then you can see that the Muslims have retaken not just the Holy Land but most of the Anatolian Peninsula with only Constantinople being in control of the Byzantines and that lasts until 1453 when the Turks finally take Constantinople as well when you look at the map at the beginning of this video and look at the map here you can see that the Crusades weren't really successful at changing the picture in the Holy Land there were areas where the Crusades were successful or that Crusader mentality was successful you can see that now that were in the 14th century much of the Iberian Peninsula has been taken by Christian kingdoms from the Muslims the Muslims of this period are left with only Granada so the Reconquista to some degree was successful it's going to continue until 1492 when the last Muslims are expelled from Spain now one thing that I felt when I study the Crusades is it's very confusing how Jerusalem in particular goes back and forth between different parties and just to get an overview of what actually happened this timeline might be helpful green shows Jerusalem under Muslim control red shows it under Christian control so at the end of the first Crusades it switches hands the Christians are in control all the way until Salah add-in takes it back now the Muslims are in control all the way until you get to the 6th Crusade where they're able to take some territory back in even parts of Jerusalem and especially in the Barons Crusades they're able to take significant territory back but then in 1244 Jerusalem is retaken again by the Muslims