If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website.

If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked.

Main content
Current time:0:00Total duration:9:38

Video transcript

as we entered into World War one the British already had a presence in the Middle East Egypt was a already a British protectorate and it formalized this as as we entered into World War one and they don't get their independence until 1922 and the British just don't hand it to them they fight for this they have a revolt against British rule and they win so you have an independent Egypt in 1922 the British also had Kuwait as a protectorate and this is from the 1800s and they don't get their independence until 1961 now we also know that the British were eager to get the help of the Arabs to essentially convince the Arabs to revolt against the Ottomans so that they could fight the successfully fight the Ottomans on the Sinai and Palestine France and on the Mesopotamia front and in particular they tried to convince this gentleman Hussein bin Ali who at the time at the beginning of World War one is the serif' of Mecca and in order to convince him they make promises to them you have a whole video on the McMahan Hussein correspondence well they say look if you help us we will give you an independent state an independent Arab state that would include all of this territory except for maybe except for maybe this region right up here and so with those British assurances he agrees to commit his forces to fight in the Arab revolt to rise up and to help the British and from that point on in 1916 where you have the Arab revolt he declares himself as the king of the Hejaz and just as a little bit of a geography tangent right over here this is the hedge oz it's kind of the west coast of the Arabian Peninsula and it contains the very influential towns of Mecca and Medina now you might say well whatever happened to the hedge oz is and most us in all of this region right now Saudi Arabia and you are correct and what happened shortly after so in 1916 he declares himself king of the Hejaz but then you had another group the Saudis in the Nejd region which is this area right over here so they they're able to they are able in 1920 in 1925 successfully successfully successfully conquer the nejd and you have even south who declares himself king of the Nejd and his jaws from 1926 to 1932 and he later litt merges them into Saudi Arabia and he's the first king of Saudi Arabia all the way until 1953 so that's how you get Saudi Arabia now let's continue let's rewind back to World War 1 you have the Arab revolt he who st. Benelli declares himself the king of the Hejaz two of his sons are very active in collaborating with the British to fight against the Ottomans this right over here is fassl bin Hussein bin Hussein literally means son of Hussein this right over here is Abdullah and by the end of the war and we covered this in the Sinai Palestine and Mesopotamia campaigns the combined British enter and Arab forces are able to move all the way into all the way into what is now northern Syria they're also able to move into what is now northern what is now northern Iraq and you can imagine at this point the Arabs are eager in a post post world environment to have their state and the reason why they're a little bit uncertain about their future is based on what some of the things that came out during the war we now know that while the British were trying to convince Hussein bin Ali to to get his forces to rise up against the Ottomans they were they were dealing with the French and the secret sykes-picot agreement to essentially carve up this whole territory between the British and the French they really weren't talking about independent States for the Arabs a few years later in 1917 this was still during the war while the war was happening you have the Balfour Declaration which declared the the British intent to create a homeland for the Jewish people then a month later on really the end of that month November 1917 the Russians make the sike picot agreement public so all of these things made made the Arabs very uneasy they got assurances from the British that oh you know that wasn't that serious of an agreement you know just keep keep fighting with us so at the end of the war they were eager to get to get what they thought was their their just claim and so you have Faisal bin Hussein he attends the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 so 1919 year of the Paris Paris Peace Conference and just to be clear at that point in time it wasn't obvious that you necessarily had to have this what we now have is this conflict between what is now Israel and the Arab people fassl bin Hussein was actually eager to to kind of reach out to the World Zionist Organization to the Zionist movement to hopefully get their help in establishing an independent Arab state he didn't think that they would that it would establish an independent Jewish state but he he said hey look if I can if I can have a homeland here but but in order to get that homeland they're willing to support me for an independent Arab state that I might kind of send out an olive branch to them and this right over here is a quote by fassl bin Hussein and this is while he's trying to get support for an independent Arab state one that he would argue was promised to him by the McMahon the McMahon correspondences with his father so this is facile we Arabs look with the deepest sympathy on the Zionist movement our deputation here in Paris is fully acquainted with the proposal submitted yesterday by the Zionist Organization to the peace conference and we regard them as moderate and proper we will do our best insofar as we are concerned to help them through we will wish the Jews a most hearty welcome home I look forward and my people with me look forward to a future in which we will help you and you will help us so that the countries in which we are mutually interested may once again take their places in the community of the civilized peoples of the world but he did throw on this caveat he was doing this because he wanted their support for an independent state and he did throw on the caveat look this only applies I'm only supportive essentially of the Balfour Declaration if we get our independent state so he really wanted he really wanted an independent independent state and he explicitly said hey look we don't get an independent state all the stuff I said here doesn't doesn't really apply and so you end up with the Treaty of sev in 1920 and it turns out that that the sykes-picot agreement held a lot more weight than the assurances between McMahon and Hussein because in the Treaty of sev this area was divided essentially according to the sykes-picot agreement up here this whole region was given to France they called it a mandate which is essentially it was allowed to be occupied by France but they called a mandate to the Allies wanted to be called a mandate so it didn't look like France was getting something a mandate is kind of hey you have to come help these people to transition them to establish a state to help them transition institutions so eventually they can get independence the the Allies wanted it to appear that look look look Central Powers look Ottomans you're not giving us something you're not giving us his territory you're giving us you're giving us a responsibility but needless to say they were eager to occupy this territory so eager that when fassold bin Hussein in 1920 declared himself king of Syria they booted him out and he was in really no power to to kind of contest that booting out this area right over here and this was pretty much in line with the sykes-picot agreement became a British this whole area right over here became a British Mandate now in in what is now Iraq you essentially have an uprising in 1920 they don't they don't appreciate they thought that they were going to become independent now they were free of the Ottomans but now all of a sudden the British come and come in and say that they're in charge so you have this revolt against the British in 1920 the British start to realize gee this is kind of expensive trying to try to keep control of this maybe we should we should install someone when and we'll still kind of keep this as a protectorate as a mandated territory but we should why don't we install someone who an Arab leader as the king of this region and so they install fassl bin Hussein as a king of Iraq and he is a king of Iraq essentially under protection or under influence of the British from 1921 until 1933 and that's when they finally get independence of of the British in 1932 now when they get booted out of Syria his brother Abdullah son of Hussein bin Ali he's allowed to become king of Transjordan and they later get independence in 1946 after World War 2 at which point he becomes the king of Jordan Syria and Lebanon they don't get independence until during or after World War 2 Lebanon gets independence in 1943 Syria gets independence from the French in 1946 and we know that the Mandate of Palestine which the British kept this would continue to be a sore point through World War two too and then with the establishment of the State of Israel shortly afterwards it becomes a very I guess we could say hot point in international affairs