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Current time:0:00Total duration:9:53

Video transcript

so far most of what we've been focused on has been Europe and some of you all have argued that hey why is this called World War one it should be called Europe or one but in reality especially because the major European powers had these empires throughout the globe it really was a world war the the most significant fronts were the Western Front and the Eastern Front but we have many many many other fronts many other campaigns and a lot of these helped shape the modern world especially the world of the 20th century you had fronts you had fronts and aft campaigns in Africa between the various Kahlid the various colonies that the empires had in Africa you had a front here in the caucuses between the Ottoman Empire and and Russia you had Japan involved Japan in World War one was on the side of the Allies it wasn't one of the major actors in World War one but it helped provide naval support it helped against some of Germany's colonies in the Pacific and in China but I want to what I really want to focus on in this video is in some ways one of the most interesting campaigns or I guess several campaigns of World War one because it really helped shape the modern Middle East and a lot of the way countries are shaped now and a lot of the conflicts that we now see in the Middle East to some degree can be tied to what happened leading up to World War one and what happened after World War one so just as a little bit of context this entire region right over here what we consider to be the Middle East now especially Arabia was nominally under Ottoman control now the Ottoman Empire had been losing power for centuries leading up to the 20th century especially if you look at the Arabian Peninsula it was it wasn't direct Ottoman control it was very hard to control the various Arab tribes there Egypt by this point as we enter into World War one in the late 1800s the British occupied start began to occupy Egypt essentially took control of Egypt as we enter into World War one Egypt is officially a protectorate of the British Empire so this is Egypt is for all purposes it is it is British and Egypt is a huge strategic interest at this point in time in fact it continues to be a huge strategic interest because it has the Suez Canal the Suez Canal is right over here can it connects it's a man man-made canal made in 1869 by the French and it connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea and to see its importance you just have to look at the map at a more global scale it's the fastest way to get from Europe by ship into the Red Sea and into the Arabian Sea and to India which was a significant part of the British Empire there or to go further east go into the Indian Ocean and go to places further reso it was a huge huge huge strategic interest and so that lays the groundwork for essentially the various campaigns oftentimes we collectively call the Middle East campaigns or they're separated sometimes as the Sinai and Palestine campaign and the Mesopotamia campaign Mesopotamia that's in modern-day Iraq the Sinai Peninsula that's part of modern-day Egypt Palestine in 1914 that's now been part it's what what is what was then considered Palestine is now part of Israel part of the West Bank part of the Gaza Strip part Lebanon and and as we'll see all of these countries that we now recognize is different countries Lebanon Jordan the Syria that these these were all kind of carved and shaped by what happened at the or during World War one and at the end of World War one so as we get to the beginning right at the right at the outset in 1914 the British land the British land right over here at I guess you could kind of cut in the southern end of Mesopotamia and over the course of the war they just keep driving northward along the Tigris River so they keep they keep driving northward and northward northward by the end of the war they've essentially captured what you would consider kind of most of modern-day Iraq and for the most part it was it was very successful campaign for the British although they did have some significant setbacks in particular in particular at the end of 1915 you had a you have the British who are who were held up at a include and they were essentially seized by the Ottoman Empire 147 days see after 147 days they had to surrender they were starving in there they couldn't get supplies they were dying a sickness this is actually a picture of an Indian soldier after the siege of Courte after they were kind of taken by the ottomans after they surrendered and even though the mesopotamia camp the Mesopotamian campaign was successful for the british the the the the siege of Courte is kind of recorded in British military history or global military histories one of the biggest humiliations for the British Army where you had that you had that many troops who had to surrender they were starving literally to death and one thing I should point out I'm going to be talking about the Allies the British troops but in the Middle Eastern campaigns and the the Sinai and Palestine Palestine Ian's campaign and in the Mesopotamian campaign Indian troops which were part of the British Empire played a significant factor especially in the Mesopotamian campaign and so did the Australian and New Zealand troops so when we talk about British troops we're also talking about all of the various nationalities that were part of the British Empire so by 1918 they were able to capture much of what is now modern-day Iraq or much of I guess you could say Mesopotamia and on the other side of I guess you could call it you know on the Egyptian side of the campaign the first few offences were the first few offensives were actually taken by the Ottomans they say hey look the British hold the Suez Canal if we could take back the Suez Canal that would be a pretty crippling blow for the British especially in their ability to get to their the various ports of their empire and so in 1915 you have the Ottomans try to make an offensive to try to capture the Suez Canal it's repulsed it fails they try again in 1916 that fails again after that the British then take the offensive and once against the British but we're talking they have Egyptian troops they have Arab troops well Egyptians or Arabs they have Australian troops with them they have Indian troops with them and they start to make an offensive and that offensive essentially continues through the course of World war one so bye so by 1970 so 1915 they make the false they are able to defend the Suez Canal 1916 the defendant again by 1917 they are making an offensive they're making an offensive they're able to after several after several tries they're able to take gaza in 1917 then they're able to take jerusalem which was kind of a major source of prestige obviously Jerusalem has a thousands years history of various armies trying to take Jerusalem but then they continue on and buy as as they saw the end of the war was imminent especially as we get into 1918 the British were and the Allies were essentially on a land grab because they knew that as soon as that armistice is called it's kind of your last chance to grab more land and then it goes to the bureaucrats to start negotiating things so in 1918 the British are essentially on a land grab or especially the Allies they take Damascus they get all the way all the way north to to Aleppo and by the end of 1918 you essentially have the end of the war you have the armistice at the end of October with the Ottoman Empire we know that the austro-hungarian signed their armistice in early November and so do the Germans in World War one is over now there's a bunch of interesting things here and you know I'm not I'm kind of doing a very broad survey of these campaigns one is the famous movie Lawrence of Arabia it took place during these campaigns this is a picture of TE Lawrence who was a well he was he was he was many many many things but he was this interesting character who tried who helped the the Arabs rise up against the Ottomans against the Turkish rule so he was heavily involved in in helping to coordinate the Arab the Arabs uprising against the Ottomans so in this case the Arabs were helping the Allies essentially push the Ottomans push the Ottomans back now the most interesting thing the outcome of this and we'll probably talk into a lot more detail about this in future videos is because by the end of the war you have the Allies in control of all of this territory in control let me do it in a better color in control of all of this territory right over here it was really left to them to carve up the modern Middle East and it was agreed to ahead of time that they that the French would gain control of kind of you know that what is now Syria and Lebanon so this is roughly Lebanon's right over there Syria we're talking roughly roughly this region including Damascus so roughly this region right over here and it left the British in control of what is now what is now Israel Palestine what is now Israel Palestine Jordan and Jordan and Iraq and as we'll see as we go into the 1920s this was all part of the British Mandate they carved it up and and and a lot of their decisions have led to a lot of what we now see is a modern Middle East and the French essentially were in control up here in Lebanon and Syria as part of the French mandate