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# How one-point linear perspective works

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And... voila. So we see Dr. Harris: And he discovers, or somewhat say rediscovers - because some think that Dr. Harris: No PhotoShop. Dr. Zucker: No PhotoShop. Dr. Harris: So, let's give a little bit of Dr. Harris: So this is your painting, this is your flat surface. Dr. Zucker: That is exactly right. And I'm Dr. Zucker: He was an architect, he was an engineer, he was a sculptor. And according Dr. Zucker: Well, look at this Paolo Uccello. Look at this study of a chalice. Dr. Zucker: Well, look what even Paolo Uccello was able to do just a few decades Duccio is not constructing that architectural space in a way Now, what I want to do is, I want to create a series of OK, so I'm putting in a couple of more verticles right here Paolo Uccello's chalice but I can draw a basic linear So, let's start off with just creating a simple interior. I'm The problem was that if you didn't want to have floor boards and instead you wanted to have This wasn't done on a computer. This was done with pen and ink on paper. a book called 'On Painting' in 1435, and we have a later version of that book right here. And inside that book a tiled floor you had a problem. Because you know a window. Dr. Harris: OK, we've got a window... Dr. Zucker: ... beginning to form. But, now here's the problem. actually do a diagram of linear perspective. Dr. Zucker: OK, now I cannot do add not only a floor to this room but I am going to put in a couple of windows. We' ll just make it very simple. after linear perspective was first discovered. Dr. Harris: So, linear ancient Roman buildings, ruins, and he wanted to be able to sketch and by the way, don't get me wrong, I love Duccio - but the problem is that and then I'm simply going to have all of this another brilliant Renaissance man, Alberti, as they go back in space. The problem is it is hard to exact- before we leave the Duccio, let's spend just a moment being kind of but that the space doesn't really make sense. Dr. Zucker: OK, so what you're saying codified what Brunelleschi had discovered. He constructing it intuitively, and intuitively when you look around at the world do this. Long before linear perspective, artists have never had a earthly space for his figure of the angel Gabriel and Mary explained the system of linear perspective for artists. Dr. Zucker: So, he publishes extraneous lines just to make things a little more clear. first with what the problem was. Dr. Harris: OK, so here we have a painting floor boards in a room, right? And artists have been able to from the early 1300s, by an artist named Duccio who is painting in Siena and going to decide that the vanishing point going to draw just a rectangle here. he really gives the formula for linear perspective and that here just to clean this up just a little bit. So we can get rid of some of the historical background and then we'll talk about how it's done. Dr. Zucker: OK, so let's start how this system works. Dr. Harris: OK, so let's go down here and let's in 1420, Brunelleschi - and let's put up a in Florence he demonstrated this system and fifteen years later in the 1400s in rationalism. Dr. Zucker: That's the period that we interested in putting his figures in a real place. The problem is - intuitively the horizontal lines have to get closer together is made up of three basic elements. There is a vanishing point, is that we have a kind of a real room here if we can see the beams and the ceiling, is what we have here. So, let's just spend a moment talking about linear perspective. Dr. Zucker: So, he was a genius. Dr. Harris: He was a Renaissance man. look as though they would meet, so it's kind of intuitive. Dr. Zucker: So, I'm actually going to look like it's popping up. Dr. Harris: Which happened often actually in paintings from the ly figure out what those proportions are as maybe the Ancient Greeks and Romans had this before - but he discovers meet in the middle at that vanishing point. Now, I'm going to use an eraser needs to be pretty much in the middle. Dr. Harris: OK. Dr. Zucker: So, I'm putting the vanishing point of these pilasters, so none of this is really making sense. Dr. Harris: Right, it's not a perspectival structure. Dr. Harris: OK, go for it. Dr. Zucker: OK, so first of all we need to understand perspective is a way of recreating the 3-dimensional picture of Brunelleschi - Dr. Zucker: OK, so he is right here, Filippo Brunelleschi problem for Duccio but it was a problem for artists about a hundred years later problem with this. Dr. Harris: Right. Well, that is because they were rational space, and there's this increasing interest rays that move down to really accurate realism on that flat surface. Dr. Zucker: OK, but really call the Renaissance. Dr. Harris, Right, the early Renaissance. And so, in Florence right about here. Dr. Harris: OK. Dr. Zucker: OK. Now, let's see... Dr. Harris: Why don't you label spatially with the seat that the Virgin Mary is on or that 'VP', so we remember it is vanishing point. Dr. Zucker: OK, so that is the vanishing point. that looks logical to our eye. Dr. Harris: And I think, you know, it probably wasn't a that matter with the lines that are constructed by the cup of the capitals that one-point linear perspective, sometimes called scientific perspective, the beams of the ceiling right up here don't agree the bottom line. And these, one could think of as kind of them accurately. And he developed this system, linear perspective, as a way of doing that. Dr. Zucker: And, in 1420 there is a horizon line, and there are orthogonals. they get denser and denser as they go back in space so that the floor doesn't they would meet or the floor board to tradition, he had gone down to Rome and he was studying unfair and finding what's wrong. Dr. Harris: OK. Dr. Zucker: So for one thing we can see the architecture, we can see the doors, and so he is really who had a different goal, and their goal was a kind of with this little stand for the Bible that we see here or for world on a 2-dimensional surface and it's really accurate. you can see that Duccio is interested in creating an you see walls in a room that look as though if they continue Dr. Harris: So this is a video about the elements of linear perspective with a little bit of history thrown in. Dr. Zucker: I love linear perspective. Dr. Harris: It's hard not to love linear perspective. It's like this magic formula.