If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website.

If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked.

Main content
Current time:0:00Total duration:7:09

Video transcript

[Music] we've just walked through one of the oldest churches in Rome Santa Maria Antiqua and what's so fascinating about Santa Maria Antiqua is the paintings that span several centuries from a time when very few paintings remain the church is located on the slope of the Palatine Hill that word Palatine is where our English word for Palace comes from and that's because the Roman emperors had their palaces on this hill and we think that Santa Maria Antigua reused an older building that may have been a guardhouse for the palace there's a ramp that would allow chariots to move up to the top of the hill it's really interesting to think about this transformation from pagan Rome to Christian Rome and of course the key figure in that transformation is Constantine who makes it legal for Christians to practice their religion and who by legend converts to Christianity at the end of his life Constantine is also important because he moves the capital from Rome to a new capital named after him Constantinople in the east now what this means is that Rome becomes politically less important let's fast forward now to the sixth century and that's when this church is consecrated when Rome is no longer a grand imperial city but you have this Christian population and you have churches that have been established by Constantine including the old st. Peter's and later Santa Sabina for example and Santa Maria Antiqua with it's very unique paintings but in 8:47 there was a terrible earthquake so between the earthquake and the 17th century when a new church was built on the site santa maria Antiqua was forgotten somebody was digging around in the garden of that new church and uncovered a small portion of the original there was a little bit of excavation done but interestingly the church was reburied and it wasn't until the very beginning of the 20th century that that new church was removed and scientific excavations began between 2001 and 2016 important conservation work was done on the paintings the chapel is once again open to the public and this is thanks to the Romans of course but with help from the Norwegians and from World Monuments fund in New York we get to go back and see what Christian Rome was like in the 6th 7th and 8th centuries let's look at paintings from each of those periods let's start with the painting on the wall that's gotten most attention this is called the palimpsest wall now the word palimpsest refers to usually a piece of paper parchment where the original writing has been scraped off so the paper can be reused so the idea is a surface that has layers of content so in other words it hadn't been scraped off completely so there might be traces and you can get a sense of the use and reuse of the wall this is just to the right of the apse at the far end of the church and the oldest figure here is referred to as Maria Regina Maria Mary Queen of Heaven Regina in Latin means Queen but that's an appropriate name because she's dressed as if she's a Byzantine Empress she's wearing a crown she's be decked with pearls and gems she's very frontal she is static symmetrical on her lap she holds the Christ child and just to her left we see an angel now you had mentioned that this was symmetrical and because of that we know that there would have been another angel on the opposite side when the apse was cut into the wall we lost that angel the next layer deeds to about fifty years later here we see an angel referred to as the fair angel and then on the left part of the face of Mary so we know that this was a scene of the Annunciation of the angel Gabriel announcing to Mary that she was going to conceive the Christ child but look how radically different the style of painting is we have this modulation of light and shadow so we have a sense of the turn of the figures it's so different from the flat frontal quality of Maria Regina so as if that's not complicated enough we have yet another layer where we see a male figure just peeking above the shoulder of Maria Regina this is a church father wearing a gold halo who's also very frontal like Maria Regina and you can just see against the bluish gray field Greek writing which is all so from this latest layer now our historians don't know why this wall and other parts of the church have layers of paintings let's turn around and go to the other side of the sanctuary to look at a pier where there's a more intact painting from the 7th century this is an image from the book of Maccabees this is Salamone and her seven sons she watched her seven sons executed for their faith very important subject for early Christians who were also persecuted for their faith what I find so striking about this painting is the energy and naturalism this is so different from the Maria Regina look at the way that light and shadow modeled the folds of her drapery that sash around her head and that crosses her torso the highlights are made with quick strokes of paint but it's clearly referencing a classical tradition that was interested in rendering form in the round although she's very frontal her body is elongated Christianity is finding its own pictorial language painters of this time want to represent the divine not the physical realm which is one of the reasons you have this kind of elongation this attenuation of the body these are not meant to be figures that we would meet these are symbolic figures that represent the spiritual realm let's look at one more image this is an image of the crucifixion and it's so interesting because this is a moment when in the eastern part of the Empire images are being forbidden in the church this is a period which we call the iconoclasm the time when images were seen as suspect they were objects that might be prayed to directly and that could mislead the faithful but this is not the east this is Rome and we have this large-scale crucifixion as if this church is making a statement the court in the East may be disallowing religious images but here in Rome we are making images to inspire the faithful these are fresco paintings these are made on wet plaster but there's an interesting ingredient here in the West frescoes tended to be painted on simple plaster walls but an Eastern technique included straw and other organic materials what's interesting is that the frescoes in Santa Maria Antiqua use this Eastern technique and it leads art historians and servitors to believe that they were made by artists from the eastern part of the empire and that makes these paintings even more significant because that means that these are very rare examples of the painting tradition that was under attack in the Eastern Empire and gives us a clue about what those paintings might have looked like that are now lost to time except at Santa Maria Antiqua [Music]