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“The Constitution instructs all who act for the government that they may not ‘deny to any person . . . the equal protection of the laws.’ In implementing this equality instruction, as I see it, government decisionmakers may properly distinguish between policies of exclusion and inclusion. Actions designed to burden groups long denied full citizenship stature are not sensibly ranked with measures taken to hasten the day when entrenched discrimination and its after effects have been extirpated.”
Associate Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, dissenting opinion in Gratz v. Bollinger (2003)