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Current time:0:00Total duration:4:45

Video transcript

one of the coolest things I've discovered about circuits is circuitry can be an art form like if I have a creative idea I can get that creative idea out using circuits so if you have ideas you can use technology to make those ideas come to life every input or output of a computer is effectively a type of information which can be represented by on or off electrical signals or ones and zeros in order to process the information that comes in as input and to make the information that's output a computer needs to modify and combine the input signals to do this a computer uses millions of teeny electronic components which come together to form circuits let's take a closer look at how circuits can modify and process information that's represented in ones and zeros this is an incredibly simple circuit it takes an electrical signal on or off and it flips it so if the signal you give it is a 1 the circuit gives you a 0 and if you give the circuit of 0 it gives you a 1 the signal that goes in is not the same as the signal that comes out and so we call this circuit not more complicated circuits can take multiple signals and combine them and give you a different result in this example a circuit will take two electrical signals now each one might be a 1 or a 0 if either of the signals coming in is a 0 then the result is also a 0 this circuit will only give you a 1 if the first signal and the second signal are both a 1 and so we call the circuit and there are many small circuits like this that perform simple logical calculations by connecting these circuits together we can make more complex circuits that perform more complex calculations for example you can make a circuit that adds 2 bits together called an adder this circuit takes in 2 individual bits each one a 1 or a 0 and adds them together to calculate the sum the sum can be 0 plus 0 equals 0 0 plus 1 equals 1 or 1 plus 1 equals 2 you need two wires coming out because it can take up to two binary digits to represent the sum once you have a single adder for adding two bits of information you can put together multiples of these adder circuit side-by-side to add together much larger numbers for example here's how an 8-bit adder adds the numbers 25 and 50 each number is represented using 8 bits resulting in 16 different electrical signals that go into the circuit the circuit for an 8-bit adder has lots of little adders inside of it which together calculate the sum different electrical circuits can perform other simple calculations like subtraction or multiplication in fact all the information processing your computer does is just lots and lots of small simple operations put together each individual operation done by a computer is so so simple it could be done by a human but these circuits inside computers are way way faster back in the day these circuits were big and clunky and an 8-bit adder could be as big as a fridge then it would take minutes for them to perform a simple calculation today computer circuits are microscopic in size and way way faster why are if small our computer is also faster well because the smaller the circuit is the less distance the electrical signal has to go electricity moves at just about the speed of light which is why modern circuits can perform billions of calculations per second so whether you're playing a game recording a video or exploring the cosmos everything you could possibly do with technology requires lots of information to be processed extremely quickly underneath all this complexity is just lots of teeny little circuits that turn binary signals into websites videos music and games these circuits can even help us decode DNA to diagnose a cure disease so what would you like to do with all these circuits [Music] you