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Current time:0:00Total duration:4:29

From terpenes to steroids part 2: Squalene, cholesterol, and steroids

Video transcript

now that the lights at the end of the tunnel a little bit I'm going to move a little bit more quickly through these reactions so let me just copy and paste here I'm gonna clear a little bit more space and so the body takes squalene and through a series of ring closing or sickle ization reactions it makes cholesterol and we consume some cholesterol in our diet but our body also completes this reaction in the liver so our our body takes squalene and turns it into cholesterol and a liver and cholesterol travels through our blood and it lives in the inside of cells and on their surfaces and in the case of endocrine organs that use steroid hormones to communicate cholesterol can actually be altered to form the very characteristic steroid backbone so let me draw that and so these are the four characteristic rings of the steroid backbone and as you can see we are a really long way off at this point from the from the very beginning place that we started which was that isoprene unit and so now that I've dragged you all the way from isoprene to the steroid backbone I figured it was only fair that I showed you that this actually happens in your body and there are actual steroids floating around your blood and so I mentioned before that there are two important classes of steroid hormones in the body and those are the sex hormones and the adrenal cortex steroids and so with the sex hormones I mentioned before estrogens and we have estradiol and s grown and you can see their steroid backbone and those are predominantly made in the ovaries and they're principally involved in secondary sex characteristics for females and we have progesterone and it's a it's kind of the pregnancy hormone it's involved in prepping the uterus and it's also involved in maintaining a healthy pregnancy and then we have androgens and we have testosterone and and roster owned and similarly to the estrogens those regulate the secondary sex characteristics but more so in in males and they're predominantly made in the testes and then moving over to the adrenal cortex steroids we had cortisone and cortisol and and those are the the body's stress hormones and so they have a lot of effects from anti-inflammatory to increasing carbohydrate metabolism and then we also have aldosterone and aldosterone is one of the the main hormones that regulates our body's blood pressure and the fluid volume and so I hope all these images make steroids a little bit more familiar to you now that you've seen the the classic backbone and you know how to make it and maybe the next time you find yourself enjoying the soothing relief of a menthol cough drop or a savory and delicious gingersnap cookie you'll think about the countless number of terpenes that you're enjoying