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Operant conditioning: Positive-and-negative reinforcement and punishment

Video transcript

so in the previous videos we talked about classical conditioning and what classical conditioning basically involves is the pairing of stimuli and the association that results between the two so behavior that would normally be the result of one stimulus becomes a result of another one because of that association that's created now obviously classical conditioning is a little more complicated than that but that's basically what it boils down to in this video I want to talk about a concept called operant conditioning and what operant conditioning basically focuses on is a relationship between behavior and their consequences and how those consequences in turn influence the behavior so I'm going to write here behaviors have consequences and in terms of operant conditioning there are two main types of consequences you have reinforcement and Punishment and when it comes to reinforcement and punishment there are two types positive and negative and the same goes for punishment there are two types positive and negative so we're going to go over each one of these in the context of an example and we're going to use a goal behavior or target behavior to help solidify this example so I want to say the goal behavior for this is safe driving safe driving so we see these two types of consequences reinforcement and Punishment what reinforcement means is it's going to increase a tendency that the goal behavior will occur again and you can do that through positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement when you see the word positive in this context it means something is being added and something is being added and positive reinforcement to increase a tendency that the behavior will occur again negative reinforcement means something's being taken away in an effort to increase the tendency that the goal behavior will occur again so for positive reinforcement since we're adding something let's say if someone's a safe driver and are following all the rules they're rewarded with a gas gift guard free gas sounds good to me so I'll write gas a gas gift card is being presented in an effort to increase a tendency that the safe driving behavior will occur again now negative reinforcement means you're going to take something away in order to increase tendency that the safe behavior will occur again so one really common example is when you get into your car before you put your seatbelt on here's a seatbelt sometimes you'll hear a loud buzzing sound it's very annoying that buzzer just keeps going until you perform the behavior of putting on your seatbelt and performing the behavior put in your seatbelt takes away the sound of the buzzer so that taking away of the sound of the buzzer is a negative of negative reinforcement and it's negative reinforcement because you're taking something away that's the buzzing sound an effort to increase the behavior that safe driving will occur again punishment on the other hand means it will decrease the tendency that a behavior will occur again so if we're going to use the example of safe driving we'd want to punish behaviors that are unsafe so positive punishment means something is being added in an effort to decrease the tendency that a behavior will occur again so let's think of a of an unsafe behavior in terms of driving one of those examples could be speeding and what happens when you speed sometimes when you get caught speeding you'll receive a speeding ticket so if you get caught speeding a police officer will present a ticket to you so something's being added here is being the ticket in an effort to decrease the tendency that that unsafe behavior will occur again so that's why people get speeding tickets on the other hand negative punishment means something's being taken away in an effort to decrease the chance that a behavior will occur again so if you want to decrease and unsafe driving by taking something away one extreme example is sometimes when people consistently break the law and they show that they're not safe drivers courts will take the license away by taking away their license so decrease in the chance that they can perform more unsafe driving so these are the four types of consequences if positive reinforcement negative reinforcement positive punishment and negative punishment and one last thing I want to illustrate here is that all of these have a reciprocal relationship all these consequences influence and shape the behavior and that's what makes operant conditioning unique it's this relationship this reciprocal relationship between behavior and consequences and how these behaviors are influenced by their consequences in these consequences will influence the behavior so these are the different types of reinforcement and Punishment